Saturday, 11 April 2015

Study System in Australia

Study System in Australia

Australia is a federation in which each state is independent and has its own Ministry of Education, so each territory is authorized to operate in a different way. For example, the degree of maturity in NSW is called HSC (High School Certificate), while in Victoria is called VCE (Victoria Certificate of Education) .. We will however try to bring us back to the standards of the system.

Australia has one of the best educational systems in the world and an excellent international reputation for the standards that guarantee. Education is recognized as an essential pillar for the whole of Australia and every year the government invests billions of dollars in the development of the school system and in university research. Today, all the services offered by the schools are designed and organized to meet the needs of the student, so that his training and staff is the best .. And all this at a lower cost than other English-speaking countries! But the most significant is that graduates in Australian universities are easily found work in their area of study, both in Australia and abroad.

Secondary Education:

Includes 7 to 12th school year (usually students from 12/13 to 17/18 years). At the end of Year 12, you get the Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (SSCE), certificate whose name varies depending on the state of Australia. During the Year 11 and 12, are conducted VET courses, known as Certificate I and II.

Tertiary Education in Australia

The qualifications of the school system are classified by the government through the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF). Australia offers two academic courses: the sector Vocational Education and Training (TAFE and RTO) issuing Vocational Graduate Certificates and Vocational Graduate Diplomas, and Universities that release Diplomas and Advanced Diplomas (Higher Education). The details in the table:

Diploma and Advanced Diploma

The Diploma and Advanced Diploma programs in Australia prepare on complex theories and practical elements in a wide variety of technical roles or management.

Educational institution: TAFE or private educational institutions.
Duration: two to three years.
Prerequisites: typically a Certificate IV in the field of study; Some courses may require work experience also proven expertise in specific subjects.
Es. Diploma in Business and Advanced Diploma in Business: prepare students for positions as "supervisor" in the areas of Human Resources, Marketing, Management and Administration, or for post-secondary professional.

Bachelor's Degree

The Bachelor's degree prepare students for professional careers or courses of postgraduate study in Australia and provide an excellent preparation depth in the academic or professional. Apart from the basic materials, is the student to choose the area (major) who want to delve into his path. In Australia, the offer is extensive and includes among others: Professional Degree, Double Degree, Graduate Entry Degree and Honours Degree.

Master's Degree

The Master in Australia prepare students for advanced knowledge and skills in the area of study chosen. In detail:

Coursework Master: includes course work, project work and research. Prerequisite: Bachelor's degree or Graduate diploma.
Professional Master: includes practical projects based on the professional position. Prerequisites: senior positions in the area and proven professional experience.
Research Master: includes research projects and its thesis. Prerequisite: Bachelor's degree or Master's preliminary year or Graduate Diploma or relevant research experience.
Educational institution: University or other private entities and qualified to deliver Master.
Duration: usually two years.

Doctoral Degree

The Doctoral Degree in Australia are of two types: research and professional; both prepare students to knowledge and skills at the highest levels in the study area chosen. In detail:

Research Doctorate: research supervised by tutors. Prerequisite: Master's degree or Bachelor Honours degree.
Professional Doctorate: professional practice, research and work in the classroom. Prerequisite: Master's degree or Bachelor Honours degree.



The sublimation of a simple substance or a chemical compound is its phase transition from the solid to the gaseous state, without passing through the liquid state. 

In the current language, since it implies the passage through an equilibrium condition (see diagram phase), is also used generically to indicate the opposite process as it would be more correct to icing up or reverse sublimation.

The chemical compounds and simple substances can have three different states of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous. Their status depends on the temperature and pressure and is described by phase diagrams. Usually, in normal environmental conditions, to switch from solid to gaseous need to cross the liquid state. Under certain conditions of pressure, the temperature changes, you can go directly from a solid to a gaseous, this direct transition from ice to gaseous, was observed on the surface of Mars by the probe Phoenix. 

It is noted that the reference pressure is the vapor pressure of the substance and not the pressure of the entire system. An example of sublimation inverse consists of the sulfur vapor, which undergo sublimation for cooling at atmospheric pressure, this is the reason to the base of the deposits of sulfur often present and visible on the ground in so-called solfataras.

An application of this physical property, it is the thermo-sublimation, a technique widely used for textile printing. In chemistry, the sublimation is exploited for the purification of substances by heating under vacuum of the solid in suitable equipment. In these conditions the solid goes into aeriform phase and subsequently will be made to solidify on a cooled surface, with the impurities which will constitute the residue remaining on the bottom of the chamber of sublimation.

The German School System

The German school system

Childhood Education

In Germany, early childhood education (Kindergarten) is voluntary and parents must pay. In some areas of western Germany, there are not enough places to meet demand. According to the long waiting lists, some parents enroll children at birth to ensure a place once the child is age appropriate.

Most children go to nursery school for two or three hours in the morning. If both parents work, you can increase the time until eight or nine hours (including evenings), in which case you will pay more. Children often go to kindergarten Monday through Friday, but some also offer services for children whose parents work shifts and weekends. In some cities, there are some Kinderkrippen for children under three years offering the same services.

Primary education

Primary education (Grundschule) begins between five and half years and six and a half, depending on the month in which the child is born. The first day at primary school is a very important event for German children. It is customary to give children a bag of candy (Schultüte) on your first day of school.

The number of hours in primary school is between 20 and 30, depending on the type and age of the child. Primary education lasts four years, after which parents receive a recommendation from teachers about what kind of school is best for the child to continue their education in high school. This recommendation is based on the assessment that teachers make of the results, level and interests of children. If a child has learning difficulties, the teacher may recommend to give a special school for children with these difficulties (Sonderschule).

Secondary education

After primary school, children often go to one of these three types of secondary schools:

Hauptschule (until age 16) - prepares pupils for vocational education and ends with a Hauptschulabschluss. The Hauptschule is designed for the less academically brilliant students. After graduating usually opt for apprenticeship (Lehre) in a manual occupation, sometimes combined with part-time study on a Berufsschule.
Realschule (until age 16) - offers more options for students in middle and ends with a Realschulabschuss. The Realschule is designed for those who are going to do practical training that require more academic, as nursing knowledge, and put more emphasis on math and language skills in the manual.

Gymnasium (until 18 or 19 years) - prepares students for higher education and ends with the Abitur (a prerequisite for entering college). This is the type of school that's required, with 32-40 hours per week and lots of homework.

In some regions of Germany, there are other schools called Gesamtschule. All children attend the same school, but within it are separated according to their level. At 16 years, depending on the results they have obtained until then, they can leave school for a Lehre, or stay another 3 years to the Abitur.


music dynamics

The dynamic is the branch of mechanics that deals with the study of the motion of bodies and its causes or, in more concrete terms, the circumstances that determine it and modify it. The complete study of the mechanics also includes static and kinematics:

 the dynamic is different from the first that studies the configurations of mechanical equilibrium, the second that studies, in the abstract, all motions conceivable but not about determining which motions can occur in a particular experimental context.

The study of the dynamics is conducted primarily referring to an abstract entity, with mass but with negligible sizeof material point. All related laws of material point can then be extended to the real bodies (with mass and of finite size) interpreted as systems of material points; if we deal with bodies in which the relative distances between the points of the system must not vary over time, it is called "rigid body dynamics"; otherwise it is called "dynamic of deformable bodies."

Chemical Balance

chamical balance

The chemical equilibrium is the condition dependent on the temperature in which the concentrations of the chemical species participating in a chemical reaction does not vary in time in total. This occurs when a chemical reaction proceeds with the same speed as the reverse reaction. This means that the rate of consumption of the reactants is equal to that of the formation of the same reagents and this also applies to the products.

Similarly, one can also say that a reaction is at equilibrium when the concentration of products and reactants remains constant, although the reaction is not stopped, in the sense that it continues to take place but not lead to any increase or decrease in concentration of products and reactants, being equal to the values of the two speeds of the reaction, the direct and inverse. As can be guessed from the definition, it is a dynamic equilibrium (non-static).

Strictly speaking, all the chemical reactions should be considered in balance, but, in common practice, those in which the concentrations of the reactants are low (in comparison to the high equilibrium constant) are easily considered non equilibrium (they are known reactions to completion) because the reaction is strongly shifted towards the formation of products.

There are four characteristics common to each equilibrium reaction.

The first, as already said, is the dynamic nature of equilibrium, in which the reaction reaches a situation defined by the equality of the reactions reactant-product and product-reagent.
The second generalization is in the spontaneity of a chemical equilibrium, that is the assertion that a system spontaneously moves towards a state of equilibrium; happen if a disturbance outside the system, when left to itself, would tend to get back into equilibrium (principle of Le Chatelier).

The third is in the statement that a process can be said to be in balance if this is reversible, ie the nature and properties are the same regardless of the direction of approach to equilibrium itself.
The fourth and final generalization consists in the nature of equilibrium thermodynamics, that is, in the vision of the equilibrium state as a condition of more favorable compromise between the natural tendency of the system to reach the minimum energy and the maximum molecular chaos or entropy.