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Monday, 2 March 2015

The University of Naples

universty of neples


The University of Naples, in the 13th century, Europe's first university that taught without papal bull. Again until the 16th century another Lutheran universities were founded without papal bull. In addition, many were Calvinist universities in the universities.

Although they offered quasi-university education, but did not have the Imperial University of privilege and could therefore not grant academic degrees side. These institutions are not included in the list.

Non-European, non-colonial colleges were characterized traditionally characterized by a strong focus on religious and philosophical curriculum. Not least because they were historically not be addressed as a university that was as an educational institution, a genuine creation of the European Middle Ages.  It was not until the late 19th century, the modern European university concept was taken outside the European culture. Among the universities with the longest history outside of Europe include the University of Fez, the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, the Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Sankore Madrasah in Timbuktu, the Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul and the University of Istanbul.

The Ideal Gas Law

gas law


The ideal gas law is the equation of state of ideal gas, a hypothetical gas of point particles, attraction or repulsion without them and whose collisions are perfectly elastic (conservation of momentum and kinetic energy). The kinetic energy is proportional to the temperature in an ideal gas. Real gases that approximate the behavior of ideal gas are monatomic gases at low pressure and high temperature.

In 1648, the chemist Jan Baptist van Heltmont created the word gas, from the Greek word kaos (disorder) to define the genesis characteristics of carbon dioxide. This name was later extended to all gaseous bodies and is used to designate one of the states of matter.

The main feature of the gasses solids and liquids, they can not be seen or touched, but composed of atoms and molecules are also found.

Because of the nature of the gas is in its molecules, widely separated from each other and each with random movements. As with the two other states of matter, the gas can also be transformed (in liquid) if subjected to a temperature reduction. This process is called condensation.

Most gases needed to achieve very low condensing temperatures. For example, in the case of oxygen required temperature is 183 ° C.

The first gas laws were developed from the late seventeenth century, apparently independently by August Krönig in 1856 1 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857.2 The universal gas constant was discovered and first introduced in the law of ideal gases instead of a large number of specific gases constants described by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1874.3 May 4

In this century, scientists began to realize that the relationship between pressure, volume and temperature of a gas sample in a closed system, we could get a formula that would be valid for all gases. These behave like a wide variety of conditions due to good approximation with molecules that are further separated, and today the state equation for an ideal gas is derived from the kinetic theory.