Monday, 23 February 2015

Education in Pakistan


Education in Pakistan is under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and administered by the four provinces and four federal territories. According to the Pakistani constitution, education is free for all children, both primary and secondary level and is compulsory until age 16.

The education system in Pakistan is divided into six levels: pre-primary (prep classes), primary education, grades 1 to 5; middle school, grades six through eight; high school, ninth and tenth grades, ultimately leading to the award of Certificate of Secondary School; the middle school, grades eleven and twelve, leading to the award of Higher Secondary School Certificate and tertiary or university programs where students can earn bachelor's and graduate in a variety of academic and professional education fields.

 Some private schools in Pakistan also provide a parallel system of secondary education, which is based on the curriculum of Great Britain and administered by the Cambridge International Assessments.

After independence from Britain, Pakistan had only one university, but today there are 136 universities in operation, 74 public and 62 private, which together serve more than one million students each year.

Despite recent advances in education, Pakistan still faces many challenges and problems, such as poverty, sectarian violence, poor teacher training, lack of resources and discrimination, especially against students. At present, the adult literacy rate in the country is only 58 percent (69 percent for males and 45 percent for women), well below the world average.

Twisted Pair Cabling


In its simplest form, the twisted pair cable contains two copper strands intertwined twisted and covered with insulator.

There are generally two types of twisted pair:

Shielded pairs (STP: Shielded Twisted Pair)
Unshielded pair (UTP: Unshielded Twisted-Pair).

A cable is often made from several twisted pairs grouped and placed inside of the protective sheath. Striping helps to remove noise due to contiguous pairs or another source (motors, relays, transformers).
Twisted pair is therefore suitable for local networking a small park with a limited budget and simple connections. However, over long distances with high data rates it does not guarantee data integrity (that is to say, the transmission without data loss).

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

UTP obeys the 10BaseT specification. This is the twisted pair type most used and most widespread for local networks. Here are some features:

Most telephone installations use UTP cable. Many buildings are pre-wired for this type of installation (often in sufficient numbers to meet the future needs). We must be careful, however, to the number of twists and other electrical characteristics required for quality data transmission.

The major problem is that the UTP cable is particularly subject to interference (a signal line mixing with those of another line). The only solution lies in the armor.

The shielded twisted pair (STP)

The STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) uses a higher quality copper sheath and more protective than the jacket used by UTP cable. It contains a shroud between the pairs and around pairs. In the STP cable, copper son of a pair are themselves twisted, which provides STP cable excellent shielding, that is to say, better protection against interference). On the other hand it allows faster transmission and a longer distance.