Wednesday, 18 February 2015

Alessandro Volta


Alessandro Volta was born in Lombardy, Italy, on February 18, 1745, within a noble family in Como, Italy. He was the son of a noble mother and father gentry. At seven's father died and the family had to take charge of their education. Early on he became interested in physics and despite the desire of his family to study a legal career, he managed to study science. He received a basic education and media humanist, but on reaching higher education, chose a scientific background.

In 1774 he was appointed professor of physics at the Royal School of Como. A year later, Volta made his first invention, an apparatus related to electricity. With two metal plates separated by a humid conductor, but united with an external circuit. It can thus for the first time, to produce electric current, perpetual electroform inventing a device is once charged, can transfer power to other objects, and static electricity generated. Between 1776 and 1778, was devoted to chemistry, discovering and isolating the methane gas. A year later, in 1779, he was appointed professor of the chair of experimental physics at the University of Pavia.

In 1780, a friend of Volta, Luigi Galvani observed that the contact of two different metals with the muscle of a frog originated the emergence of electric current. In 1794, Volta was interested in the idea and began experimenting with metals only, and concluded that the animal muscle tissue was not necessary to produce electricity.

 Alessandro Volta, "addressed a letter" to Sir Joseph Banks, the then leader of the Royal Society In March 20, 1800, in which he announced the discovery "of a voltaic pile". This letter was read before the Royal Society on June 26, 1800, after several reproductions of the invention done by the members of society, the invention was confirmed and given credit for it.

In September 1801, Volta traveled to Paris accepting an invitation of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, 4 to expose the features of his invention at the Institute of France. On 2 November the same year, the commission of distinguished scientists from the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France responsible for assessing the invention of Volta issued its report asserting its validity. Impressed with Volta's battery, the emperor appointed him Count and Senator of the Kingdom of Lombardy, and awarded the highest distinction of the institution, the gold medal for scientific merit. The Emperor of Austria, meanwhile, selected on the post of director in the  section of philosophy at the University of Padua in 1815.

His works were published in five volumes in 1816, in Florence. The last years of life were spent at his estate in Camnago near Como, where he died on March 5, 1827.

The Geometry


The geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of the properties of figures in the plane or the space including: points, lines, planes, polytopes (including parallel, perpendicular, curves, surfaces, polygons, polyhedra, etc.).

It is the theoretical basis of descriptive geometry or technical drawing. It also gives substance to instruments like the compass, theodolite, the pantograph or global positioning system (especially when considered in combination with mathematical analysis and especially differential equations).

Geometry is one of the oldest sciences. Initially formed in a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas and volúmenes.La Babylonian civilization was one of the first cultures to incorporate the study of geometry with the invention of the wheel the way to the study of the circle opened, which subsequently lead to the discovery of the number π (pi); They also developed the sexagesimal system, knowing that each year has 360 days, also implemented a formula for calculating the area of the trapezoid rectangular. In Ancient Egypt was highly developed, according to the texts of Herodotus, Strabo and Deodars, in third century. geometry configured as axiomatic and constructive treatment which established a rule to follow for many centuries Euclidean geometry described in The Elements.