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Thursday, 12 February 2015

The Paramecium

The Paramecium


The Paramecium is a kind of completely ciliated protists. The term "eyelashes" have the paramecium with some other individual learning together that counts is traditionally one of the ciliates
Paramecium only lives in fresh water.

 They come in waters such as Pools, ponds, lakes, rivers, but also in puddles before. Thus, they are an important part of the ecosystem "freshwater". Paramecium are a common ciliates. Paramecium forms unlike many other unicellular no cysts as resting stages.


There are different types of paramecium, Paramecium caudatum, for example, Paramecium bursaria, Paramecium putrinum or trichium and others. Paramecium has their elastic skin, which hardly allows variation, a fixed slipper-shaped appearance. You using from 0.05 to 0.32 mm long. The largest species is one of the "giants" among the protozoa, as they are already seen in a drop of water to the naked eye as small white dots.

The Distillation Process

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Separation of a mixture by distillation

The distillation allows to separate the components of a solution by exploiting their different volatility (volatility is defined as the tendency of a substance to evaporate: the liquid low boiling point have a high volatility).

It 'a separation technique is widely used in chemistry laboratories that at an industrial level and is often used to separate two immiscible liquids having different boiling temperatures. For example you can separate the components of the mixture water-ethanol. The liquors like brandy, whiskey and brandy spirits are called just because you get through distillation processes.
With the technique of distillation is also possible to separate the solvent from the solution of a solute or to fractionate systems normally gaseous state after being liquefied. An example is the separation of nitrogen and oxygen after liquefaction of air.

Types of distillation

Simple distillation

Separation of a mixture by simple distillation
The simple distillation, also called distillation at ordinary pressure, is a technique used in chemistry laboratories to separate the solvent from the solution of a solute.
Can also be used to separate miscible liquids with boiling points which differ by at least 25 ° C. The

Fractional distillation

Separation of a mixture by fractional distillation
The fractional distillation is used to separate the components of the solutions formed by miscible liquids ottennendo very high degrees of purity.
The equipment used is the same as the simple distillation, but with the addition of a rectification column which is inserted between the distillation flask and the refrigerant pipe (condenser).

Steam distillation

Separation by distillation of steam
The distillation in steam current exploits the phenomenon according to which the temperaura boiling of a mixture consisting of two immiscible liquids is lower than the boiling temperature of the most volatile component. For example temperature the boiling point of benzene is 85 ° C (P = 1atm) and the water is 100 ° C; instead the mixture boils at about 66 ° C, the lowest temperature of the most volatile component (benzene).