Sunday, 18 January 2015

Concept of force

Concept of force

Experience shows that a body initially latch is set in motion without the intervention of an external cause. This cause is, in general, by a force applied to the body in question.

The forces occur so as first of all causes of motion. But it is not said that a body to which a force is applied is always put in motion: this will be done in general only when the body is actually free to move, that is when no constraints exist capable of neutralizing the effect of a force applied.

For example

All the bodies as a result of their weight tend to move vertically downwards. The weight of a body is thus a force. However, if the body is laid on a table, is backed by our hands, etc., that is bound, not moving. Thus one can say that the effect of a force is to put in motion the body to which it is applied, or to produce a deformation of the constraints that prevent the body to move.

Having defined the concepts of location, time, mass, and strength, can be stated, the fundamental problem of the mechanical system to predict the motion of a body or of a system of bodies are known when the forces on it agents.

How To Get Student Visa For Germany?

How do I get a student visa for Germany?

To Get admission for study in Germany intended for a student visa must first to be submitted before traveling to Germany at the German Embassy.

This requires, inter alia, to provide documents, which show that the applicant is approved by the University for the study and documentation demonstrating the financing during the study period. If necessary. It is also possible to apply for a so-called. student visa, if not exactly, it is common to study the university at which the foreigner.

Details of the documents required for visa application can be comfortable in many cases and simply placed on the website of the German Embassy or directly at the German Embassy in experience.
The German diplomatic mission, the visa to enter the issue only after the competent authority has granted foreigners in Germany to give consent.

Visa application forms for a long-term stay (over 3 months) obtained for free from the applicant embassy or consulate.

Nationals of Australia, Israel, Japan, Canada, New Zealand, South Korea and the United States of America, as well as Andorra, Brazil, El Salvador, Honduras, Monaco and San Marino can obtain the necessary residence permit for study purposes after entering the country. Responsible is the immigration authorities of the place where the foreigner to take up residence.

History of Camera


The current model of camera is the result of a technical evolution that began about 200 years ago, which led almost all the cars to be equipped with a microcomputer.

Many are the dates which trace the birth of photography, but the first time it came to photography was in 350 BC, in "Problemata", Aristotle spoke of the light sensitivity of certain substances.

They have to spend another 400 years or so (70 dc) before Pliny the Elder writes: "quattuor coloribus solis immortalia ilia work ..." (only four colors immortalized this work).

And it is only in 1500 the AC Leonardo Da Vinci that describes in detail the principle of the camera obscura: this date painters begin to portray the landscapes thanks to this discovery.

With Galileo Galilei in 1609 is perfected telescopic view of the recovery in 1657 and Gaspar Schott, thanks to two "sliding boxes" that allowed the variation of the distance between the lens and the plane in which the image was created, manages to find the right adjustments focus of the "camera obscure".

Now it can be said that it began the camera.

They spend about two centuries before Nicépore Niepce in 1826, made use of the first device used to produce photographs constructing the original stable images in Black and White obtained using "bitumen of Judea" as sensitive material, laid out on a sheet of pewter.

The evolution of optics on the one hand and the construction technique on the other (for example due to the bellows) brought cameras to be more compact and transportable.

Improved techniques for developing and printing goes hand in hand with the inventions of the various policy: in 1859, thanks to Cooke, born the first "flash" with the use of magnesium.

In 1880 comes the first photographic film and eight years later in 1888 George Eastman Kodak devises the name for his first camera.

The twentieth century opened with another important step: in 1907 the brothers Lumiere debug process for the development of color film. Throughout this century we will walk important in improving the camera and in experimenting with new materials development and printing.

In 1913 Oscar Barnak, head of a department of a German optical company, built the first prototype of the Leica, in 1935 the Cnopm (USSR) patented the first SLR to 35mm film. In 1948 Edwin Land invented the Polaroid.

In 1959 the Nippon Kogaku produces the Nikon F and, the following year, the Konica F is the first SLR with plane shutter metal reaching shutter speeds faster than 1/2000 second.

In 1981, Sony introduces the Mavica, the first camera that uses a magnetic media instead of film, and the same year the Pentax opens the season of autofocus SLR.

1999 marks the digital age with the birth of the Nikon D1 SLR.

The current market offers a great variety of digital cameras arriving at resolutions up to 5 million pixels

German Economy After 1st World War


The global economic crisis is connected in Germany inevitably with a name, that of Chancellor Heinrich Brüning. The estimated in his party as a financial expert center politicians joined in 1930 the successor Hermann Müller after the grand coalition had failed because of the issues of unemployment. In him the hopes of saving the country were put out of the crisis.

As of March 30, Brüning then led his government, with the aim to rehabilitate the ailing state budget and end the war reparations. Brüning government was appointed by President Paul von Hindenburg, as it was the parties no longer possible to form capable of governing majorities.

By the emergency powers of the Constitutional Article 48 and Article 25, the dissolution of the Reichstag, Hindenburg secured the capacity to act presidential government.
With his so-called deflation policy Bruning policy of the American was quite the opposite.

Content of his policies have included the following measures:

As in the US, the salaries of public employees were also reduced in Germany. However, in Brüning they suffered with 25% compared to the US, where the salaries of federal employees decreased by only 15%, much higher.
Similarly, an increase in the income tax was carried out by Brüning government. Thus income were taxed by more than 8,000 Reichsmark by 5% more than usual.

Saving measures in the field of unemployment - the costs were reduced from 1821 million marks to 721 million Reichsmarks - and an increase in unemployment contributions from 3.5% to 4.5% are also indicative of the policy, such as the introduction of a Single tax of 10% ,
The restoration of the kingdom of Finance, the Brüning the end of 1930 drastically operation should reassure foreign investors and further minimize the possibility of further borrowing open.

In fact, succeeded to the Registrar to cut government spending compared to the previous year by 19% in fiscal 1931, but declined in the same period, the revenue due to the still high unemployment rate by as much as 20%, which does nothing for the success of the policy Brünings less than a disaster meant.

Another problem posed still to be paid reparations. On 03.12.1930 it was the so-called Young Plan, which to pay the remaining debt totaling 113.9 billion Reichsmarks in 59 annual installments until 1988, stipulated adopted by the Reichstag.

The account of the austerity high unemployment and the great misery in the population should demonstrate the Allies that the payment of the reparations were still not possible. Some throw Brüning even a conscious policy, which should lead to an increase in unemployment before.

The aim of being able to stop the payments of reparations finally was achieved on the Lausanne reparations, which was held from June 16 to July 9, 1932. A final payment of 3 billion Reichsmark was nevertheless required.

With the end of the Lausanne Conference the crucial bondage fell for the German economic policy, there was even more subdued optimism in the population, which was reflected in a significant investment recovery. This was a crucial factor in Germany's path out of the crisis in any case.