Thursday, 15 January 2015

Insulators And Conductors In Electrical Circuits


1) Insulators and conductors in electrical circuits

The electric current can flow in a circuit must therefore not only that the latter is closed but it is formed as a succession of conductive materials.
The presence of an insulator in the loop that forms a circuit has an effect comparable to an open switch.

Some examples of conductors and insulators
Conductor Examples: iron, steel, aluminum, silver, gold, copper, zinc, lead, tin, graphite.
Insulating Examples: glass, air, wood, paper, fabric, plastics

In general all metals (iron, gold, silver, copper, aluminum, zinc etc.) are conductive.
Most other solid materials are insulating (wood, paper, glass, fabrics, plastics etc) with some exceptions such as graphite (as found in pencils).

2) The conductivity test

This test is intended to distinguish conduct rides materials from those insulating.
It relies on the use of an electrical circuit comprising inserting the material to be tested.
Circuit diagram produced for the conductivity test.

Principle of conductivity test:

- If the material is conductive so the current can flow in the circuit and the light can shine.

- If the material is an insulator while the electric current cannot flow and the light does not shine.


Some liquids are conductive but this test is not always sensitive enough to detect the currents that can circulate.

Famous German Universities


Germany has a particularly strong educational background and large number of universities with long history. However, that may be not so easy to determine which university is the most famous.

The most famous universities in the UK or the US elite universities, only the best (or most) students can study there. In Germany this elite system is much less pronounced. Well-known universities are rarely specialized but "full universities," where studies are available in all areas. Each university has its strengths and weaknesses and is famous for research priorities. In recent years, attempts to determine the best universities by means of an excellence program

  • The oldest university of Germany (the Heidelberg University): 

The Heidelberg University is the oldest university in Germany founded in 1386. In 16th century, this university was the center of humanism. Today the University of Heidelberg is best known for her excellent programs and research in the field of life sciences and Biology. 55 Nobel Prize winners stand in relation to the University of Heidelberg, the famous writer Joseph von Eichendorff and well known political philosopher Hannah Arendt studied here.

  • Goethe and the University of Leipzig

This University has benefited from its historical value. The famous writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe studied here. A focal point, for which the University has special reputation, is the area of communication and media studies.

  • The capital and Universities

Berlin has a total 4 universities; two of them head a special reputation. The Humboldt University in Berlin was constructed to Humboldt's educational ideal, which is in favor of a strong general education. The Humboldt University became the first university in a whole new type. Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Heinrich Heine have studied here.

Stands to the Free University of Berlin in a little competition, she is a young and modern university; it was founded in 1948. In particular, the social sciences are in a very good light. Many later politicians and ministers such as Mr. Annette Schavan, Rudi Dutschke or some RAF Mitlgieder studied here.

Finally, include the Technical University of Munich's most famous universities Germany. The university is very specialized, there are only technical studies such as science and engineering offered. The biochemist and Nobel laureate Konrad Emil Bloch is a graduate of the Technical University.

Scope Of Biotechnology

Bio-Technology is a combination of Biology and Technology it is a research oriented science,. It covers a large variety of subjects like Chemistry, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Genetics, Immunology, Virology, and Engineering. Bio-Technology is also connected with huge number of other fields of daily life like Agriculture, Health, Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Cell Biology, Ecology, Soil Conservation and Soil science.

Biotechnology, as a subject has grown very quickly. And as well as employment is concerned, it has become fastest growing sector. According to the records of employment it seems that biotechnology has a great scope in future. Bio-technologists can find jobs in agriculture industries pharmaceutical companies, allied, chemical industries.

They can be employed in the areas of management, production, planning, and of bio-processing industries. As there increasing popularity and rapid growth, there is plenty of opportunities available in the field Biotechnology.

The Human Brain


The human brains are made of many different areas. Each of these areas is most important with specialized functions. Basically brain is divided in three main parts
  1. The Brains stem
  2. The Mid brain
  3. Fore-brain

The center of the brains comprises the brains stem and midbrain. The function of midbrain and largely preserved on the years of evolution. The work of forebrain, however, its changed somewhat. The bark is highly developed with solving of thinking and problem.

1) The Brains stem

This part of the brains is similar to animals of lower specie, and did not change with evolution. The brains stem contains structures including the medulla oblongata that heart rate, control breathing, and digestion that coordinate sensory input and maintain movement and balance.

2) The Mid-brains

This area of the brains is responsible for hearing, vision, temperature control, and vigilance. Midbrain links the brains strain with the thalamus, for information that the meanings of the brains and back muscles permits must be repaid. Midbrain also contains a limbic system, which is above the brains stem and under the bark. It contains a plurality of interconnected structures that temperature control, hormones, and regulates emotions. This system also handles long-term memory. It contains

I) The hypothalamus

The hypothalamus regulates emergency responses just like the "fight or flight" response, similarly non-emergency indispensable processes like feeding and reproduction. This part also controls the release of hormones.

II) Amygdala

Amygdala part of the limbic system controls behavior.

III) Hippocampus

This area is the cause of itself forming, storing and organizing memory.

Midbrain and the limbic system also form a part of the Reticular Activating System. It is the region that regulates waking and sleep.

3) Fore-brain
This area contains the cortex and surrounds of the brains stem and midbrain. It is highly advanced and has a very complex structure. Forebrain involved in thinking and problem solving.
The bark is made up of lobes that are:

I) Frontal lobe:

The area of the brains occupied the advantage of the skull, and is located behind the forehead. This lobe is associated with decision - making, planning, voluntary movement, processing, speech, odor, and emotions.

II) Wall lobe:

This section of the brains processed sensory information and is the cause of the determination of the spatial awareness, navigation, and places. It is also involved in processing information with respect to touch, taste and temperature.

III) Temporal lobe:

the temporal lobe is involved in the processing of visual and hearings information and control to some aspects of perception, emotion and memory.

IV) The occipital lobe:

This is the optical processing center of the brains and consists of the largest proportion of the visual marsh area.

Oscillatory motion and vibration

simple pendulum

A particularly interesting periodic motion in the field of mechanics is that an object which moves from its equilibrium position and returns to performing a movement back and forth with respect to this position.

This type of periodic motion is called oscillatory motion. Oscillations of a mass connected to a spring, the movement of a pendulum or the vibrations of a string instrument are examples of oscillating movements. The equilibrium position is often defined as the position at rest.