Tuesday, 13 January 2015



Definition of Hypothesis:

It is a proposition that establish relationship between facts. It is a possible solution to the problem. "The hypothesis is a proposition, condition or principle which assumes certainty in order to derive its logical consequences with facts,

Hypothesis is a method of verify to other researchers. Therefore, it is fundamental and primary a tool for checking assumptions with reality.

Importance of hypothesis:

The assumptions are the contact point between theory and observation. When the research hypothesis has been well developed, and in their relationship or link between two or more variables can be clearly seen, it is viable that the researcher can:

Prepare for the target or set of targets you want to achieve in the development of research.

Select the type of research design possible with the problem.

Select the method, tools and research techniques consult with the problem to be solved.

Select the resources, both human and material, to be used to bring to the proposed of research.

Classification of Hypothesis:
The hypothesis is classified according to the coexistence of each other

General hypothesis: when is broadly respond to questions that the researcher has about the relationship between the variables.

Statistical hypothesis: the statistical hypothesis is that hypotheses tested and operational assumptions expressed as mathematical equations.

Specific hypothesis: students of language and communication get this for subproject, comprehensive education program, trained in study skills, improve their learning techniques.

Null hypothesis: (X1) = (X2); there is no relationship in the averages obtained by students trained in 
study skills (X1) and untrained (X2)

Alternative Hypothesis: X1> X2; students undergoing training in processing techniques summary (X1) obtained better average performance than students who did not receive any training (X2).

Difficulties in Developing Hypothesis:
The hypothesis is arduous; difficult to accomplish this difficulty usually comes from circumstances such as:

A little clear statement of the research problem

Lack of knowledge of the theoretical framework of research

Lack of ability to develop, and use the theoretical reference

Requirements for the development of hypotheses:
The formulation of hypotheses is a task that is achieved when it meets certain requirements, including
Formulated clear terms, using precise words that do not lead to multiple interpretations, the clarity with which are formulated is critical.Having an empirical reference, this means it can be verifiable.

Wave Theory of Light


Light can shows both a wave theory and a particle theory at the same time. Some time, light behaves like a wave. Light waves are also electromagnetic waves for the reason that they are made up of electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields.

Wavelength and frequency are two most important characteristics of waves.

The sine wave is the fundamental waveform in nature. When calculating light waves, we refer to the sine wave. The time period (T) of the waveform is one full 0 to 360 degree sweep (complete revolution). The relationship between frequency and the period is shown by the equation:

f = 1 / T
T = 1 / f

Wavelength: The space between peaks of a wave is known as wavelength, measured in meters, When we calculate the  light, wavelengths are in the order of nano-meters (1 x 10-9)

Frequency: The number of peaks that will travel from point to point in one second. The measuring unit of Frequency is cycles per second. After the 19th century the name given to this is Hertz (Hz) the name of the wave discoverer of radio - Heinrich Hertz. 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second.

We can find the speed of a wave by multiplying the two units together. Wave's speed is measured in (distance) per second:
Wavelength x Frequency = Speed

The Speed of Light:

The speed of light is a universal constant, about 300,000 km/sec or 186,000 m/sec in a vacuum. The accurate speed of light is: 299,792.458 km/s

It takes just about 8.3 min from the sun to reach the earth, which is 150,000,000 km, and the light travels at 300,000 km/s, (150.000.000 / 300.000 / 60 = 8.3).

The SI units for frequency (¦), wavelength (l) and speed of light (c), we with this equation we can show the relation between wavelength, frequency and speed of light.

c / ¦
¦ c / l

Relationship Between Voltage, Current and Resistance

Relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance

The basic relationship between voltage, current and resistance in a circuit is known Ohm’s Law. Every material is made of from atoms, and all atoms consist of electrons, protons and neutrons. Protons, have a +ve electrical charge and Neutrons have no electrical charge while Electrons, consist of negative electrical charge.

Atoms are bound together with powerful forces of attraction present between the atoms nucleus and the electrons in its outer most shell.

When those protons, neutrons and electrons are together in the atom they are happy and comfortable. But if we separate them, they want to reform and start to exert a force of attraction called a potential difference.

Now if we create a close path circuit these loose electrons will start to move and try to attach the with the protons due to their attraction creating a flow of electrons. This flow of electrons is know as an electrical current. The electrons do not flow freely through the circuit if the material they move through creates a restriction to the electron flow. This restriction is called resistance.

Then all basic electronic circuits consist of three different but very much related quantities called: Voltage, ( v ), Current, ( i ) and Resistance, ( Ω ).

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton was a vital character in the history of science, especially in mathematics and physics. He was born in 1643, in a little town of England, in same year of the death of the most famous Scientist Galileo Galilei, Newton was a very genius from his childhood.

He studied philosophy, theology, alchemy, astrology, astronomy & other branches of science. He, along with several other scientists and philosophers of the time, believed that the study and understanding these sciences is of natural phenomena.

Newton was famous to all his efforts, research and investigations conducted. The experimental investigations were full of mathematical rigor, and became truly a research model for the sciences of later centuries. In the middle of many works that Isaac Newton developed, such as:

  • The expansion of the power series of a pair, which is well known as the binomial name of Newton;
  • The creation and development of differential calculus and integral calculus, which is a very important tool for the study of physics.
  • The theory of the optical phenomena with the aim of made possible the amplification of the theory of color bodies;
  • \The study about the laws of motion, 
  • \The development of the initial thoughts of Universal Gravitation.

The world's 1st university

World's 1st university

Before 700 B.C., there was a giant University at Takshashila, northwest area of Bharat (India).
Takshashila is the old name of Taxila, in the kingdom of Gandhar. Almost 68 subjects were taught at that university and the least entry age, was 16.

 In one period, it had more then 10,500 students together with those from Babylon, Greece, Syria, and China.

High qualified masters taught the vedas, languages, philosophy, medicine, grammar, surgery, politics, archery, accounts, warfare, astronomy, commerce, documentation, music, dance and other drama arts, futurology, mystical sciences, complex mathematical calculations.

The jury of masters at the university Along with legendary scholars likes Kautilya, Panini, Jivak and Vishnu Sharma. Consequently, the idea of a full-fledged university was developed in India.

Higher Education in Italy.

Higher Education in Italy.
Type of institutions
Higher education institutes at university level contain the following two main categories:
- Universities,
- AFAM (High level of arts).

Universities offers courses of studies, here we defined the names of the most common types of securities and their relevant degrees or academic qualifications.
There are three main cycles in universities.

First cycle:
Bachelor’s Degree (CL / CL3) credits in three years
Degrees and Titles
Bachelor’s Degree (L / L3) - Doctor

Second cycle:
 M. Sc (CLS) in two years
M. Sc (CLM), 120 ECTS in two years
M. Sc in one cycle (CLSu), 300-360 ECTS in 5-6 years
Advanced degrees in 1 cycle (CLMu), 360 ECTS in 5-6 years
Courses Master of first level (CMU.1), 60 ECTS in one year

Degrees and Titles
M. Sc (LS) – Medicine masterful
M. Sc (LM) - Medicine masterful
One-cycle (LSU) - Medicine masterful
Master in single-cycle (LMU) - Medicine masterful

Third round:
PhD, 3 year studies and research
Master 2nd level, 60 ECTS credits in one year
Postgraduate Diploma- Specialist

B) Institutions of AFAM
The institutions of (AFAM) Higher Education in Art and Music are biased on teaching, production and research in the field of visual art (music, dance, drama and design).
Over all in Italy, there are 132 institutions of AFAM
In institutions of AFAM, also three cycles,

First Cycle:
1. The first one consists of diploma courses, those are accessed throughout the diploma of secondary education or another qualification and an entry test. Last three years of course are given to the issuance of 180 credits (CFA), with the law of ensuring satisfactory of creative skills.

Second Cycle:
Second cycle depends on the Academic Diploma second level, those are accessed through the educational degree of first level or a different condition obtained. It is essential that the acquired education is constant and ample to the second level course and is assessed by examination. They last two years are provide to the issuance of 120 credits (CFA).

Third Cycle: 

3. The third cycle consists of the graduate academic research training, accessed with the educational degree of second level or other foreign ability acknowledged as comparable. The Goal of providing these courses is improving the skills, planning and accomplishment of activities of excellence research.