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Friday, 24 July 2015

Development Of Universities In The German-Speaking Countries

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The German university system has its origins in the Holy Roman Empire with the creation of universities (ie the awarding of privileges, even to existing schools) by the spiritual and temporal ruler. So especially Bologna (founded 1088-1119) [12] by Barbarossa 1155 (award of a legal privilege) and the Charles University in Prague in 1348 by Charles IV., Both of which did not lie in the German-speaking areas and are, but for German-speaking students, the study places were , That are present in Prague four nationes (students of other origins joined one of these four to) were: Bohemia, Poland, Bavaria and Saxony. What was new was that these universities were founded by a ruler and did not evolve from schools such as Bologna, Paris, Oxford and Salerno.

Some encyclopaedic works like the Brockhaus therefore call Prague as the oldest German university (though the language of instruction - as was customary - Latin was) because the founder Roman-German Emperor was, and the University of Vienna, founded in 1365 by Duke Rudolf IV, the second oldest. . [13] on the territory of the present Federal Republic of Germany claim the University of Erfurt with the first privilege of 1379 [14] and which was founded in 1385 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg [15] the state's oldest university. Difficulties arise in particular from the boundary determination: On the one hand was "Germany" the German language area; on the other hand already studied in Paris, but also within the empire already in Bologna in German nobles (transmontani called from beyond the Alps). Karl founded the University also in his capacity as King of Bohemia, the Emperor, he was only seven years later. The designation of "Germany's oldest universities" so can the complexity of social relations in the medieval period disregarded. What is certain is Vienna (1365), the oldest university of the present state of Austria, Erfurt (1379), the oldest university of the present state of Germany and the University of Basel (1460), the oldest of today's Switzerland (also this city was only since 1501 the Confederation).

It resulted from the Schism [16] more universities. Many sovereigns wanted to upgrade their territory by setting up its own university in their own land. By doubling the papacy this project was more than the financial aspect in the way, because the coveted privilege of the Pope was now to have it easy. Both popes were blackmailed and bestowed upon request, a University of privilege in the knowledge that when a rejection of the respective anti-pope would give the agreement establishing a university. For this reason and because of the higher demand for scholars of canon law more universities were founded: in 1379 in Erfurt (Foundation privilege of the Antipope Clement VII in Avignon, which was awarded in 1389 by Pope Urban VI again, 1392 Commencement of teaching..), In 1386 in Heidelberg , 1388 in Cologne, 1402 in Würzburg, 1409 in Leipzig, in 1419 in Rostock. Until the Reformation was followed by 1456 Greifswald, 1457 Freiburg, Ingolstadt 1472 (moved to Munich), 1473 and 1477 Trier Tübingen and Mainz. Of the universities mentioned but there are only Heidelberg, Leipzig, Rostock, Greifswald and Tübingen since its foundation without interruptions