Wednesday, 27 May 2015

Get Study Visa For Hong Kong

hong kong

Hong Kong is not only a place to be visited by tourists as it is an educational center that brings together people from around the world. Houses some of the best universities in Asia and the world, thanks to international standards that keep these institutions. Each year, the greater the number of foreign students who come for higher education courses, from neighboring nations and not so close. Here, we describe the procedures that must be performed to apply for a student visa in the region:

1. Get a sponsor

Before applying, you must nominate a local sponsor; which may be the school that admitted you as a student, or a person over 18 who is a resident of Hong Kong and economically able to support you throughout the race. In such a scenario, you must complete and fill a "Statement of Financial Sponsor"; and your parents / guardians must authorize sponsorship, especially if you are still a minor.

2. Fill out the necessary forms

The visa applicant must complete the form ID 995A, while the sponsor does the same with the 995B ID. Both can be downloaded online through the website:, or find them at the following locations:
Immigration Department Headquarters
Immigration Division of the Office of Government of the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong (HKSAR) in Beijing
Immigration Branches
Chinese Diplomatic and Consular Missions Abroad
Economic and Trade Office in Hong Kong in Guangdong

Attach a recent photo on the second page of the return.

3. Attach these documents

Transcripts, awards and certificates
Photocopy of your letter of acceptance issued by a university in Hong Kong, and your letter of acceptance to the specific course
Photocopy of the travel document containing personal data, issue date, expiration date and / or details of previous visas (if applicable)
A passport-sized photograph
Test your financial condition and obtained scholarships, bank statements, passbooks, etc. The minimum amount of money required are $ 120,000 of Hong Kong or the equivalent in any foreign currency

Photocopy of academic results
Photocopy of other qualifications such as IELTS or TOEFL test
Photocopy of identity card or equivalent
Photocopy of passport
Visa Application forms and properly completed Sponsorship Statement
Photocopy of notification of telegraphic transfer / receipt

Ionization Energy


The ionization energy, or EI ionization potential is the energy needed to remove an electron in the ground state of an atom of an element in gas.1 The reaction condition can be expressed as follows:

\ A _ {(g)} + E {I} \ to A ^ + _ {(g)} \ + 1 \ bar e.

Where A _ {(g)} gaseous atoms of a given chemical element; E_i, the ionization energy and \ bar and an electron.

This energy corresponds to the first ionization. The second ionization potential is the energy required to subtract the second electron; this second ionization potential is always greater than the first, because the volume of a positive ion is less than the atom and the attractive electrostatic force that supports the second electron is greater in the positive ion in the atom as it is retained the same nuclear charge.

The ionization potential or energy expressed in electron volts, joules or kilojoules per mole (kJ / mol).

1 eV = 1.6 × 10-19 C × 1 V = 1.6 × 10-19 J

The elements of the same family or group, the ionization potential decreases with increasing atomic number, that is, from top to bottom.

However, the increase is not constant, as in the case of beryllium and nitrogen higher than what could be expected by comparison with the other elements in the same period values ​​are obtained. This increase is due to stability posed by s2 and s2 p3 configurations, respectively.

The higher ionization energy corresponds to the noble gases, since their electron configuration is the most stable, and therefore will have to provide more energy to boot electrons.

Thursday, 21 May 2015

Study At Mexico


Each year, thousands of international students successfully obtain a visa to study in the UK. The British 

Visas and migration in the UK manages to do with Visas for UK and migration. Visit the website of Visas and migration in the UK for more information.

When should I apply for a visa?

It is importatne apply for a visa well in advance of your course comensar. Many students do not realize how long does the process take and do not do it enough. Your request may include the following:

have vaccines or if you come from an area at high risk for tuberculosis, a chest radiograph
documents showing your finances and certifications
attend an interview or a biometric test
take an English test.
You can apply For Visa Of 3 months before the start of your course, but it is good to start your research and you need to plan ahead.

You must have an answer on your visa within a period of three weeks. Check the guide visa processing times Visas and migration in the UK to know how long the process to obtain a visa in your country.

Tuesday, 12 May 2015

Potential Energy


In physics, the potential energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its position or its orientation with respect to a field of forces. [1] In the case of a system, the potential energy can depend by the arrangement of the elements that compose it. [2] It can be seen also as the potential energy capacity of an object (or system) to transform its energy into another form of energy, such as the kinetic energy.

The term "potential energy" was coined by Rankine in 1853. In the international system is measured in joules (J).

It is a scalar function of the coordinates of the object in the reference system used. Given a conservative vector field, the potential energy is its capacity to do work: the work relating to a force acting on an object is the line integral of the second kind of force evaluated on the path taken by the object, and if it is conservative value of this integral does not depend on the type of path followed. When it has to do with conservative forces can be defined as a scalar potential, which is sometimes made to coincide with the potential energy, defined in the whole space. In particular, from the mathematical point of view this potential exists only if the force is conservative, and the rest is assumed that for all the conservative forces can always define a potential energy physically.

The lightning Rod


The lightning rod is a device to attract and disperse atmospheric electrical discharges. It was invented by Benjamin Franklin, American physicist, and was applied for the first time successfully in Paris May 10, 1752.

To get to the lightning rod Franklin had made some important considerations on atmospheric electrical discharges, coming to establish that the damage caused by these were not due so much to their power, how much heat they generated on impact with any object. Also he found that when lightning, which is nothing more than an electrical discharge, striking an object, passes through only part: it was necessary then to think of something that would attract the lightning and disperse them through the force of a fixed course.

Discovering the peculiarities of metal spikes, especially those in gold, to attract the electrical discharges, thus acting as a magnet against the lightning, Franklin solved the biggest challenge: to capture him during his discharge.

 The lightning rod then consists in a long, thin metal rod coated with the tip of a noble metal (intrinsically devoid of surface layers of oxides and therefore high electrical conductivity) placed on the top of the building to be protected; from this it is derived a metal wire which is connected to earth: the electrical discharge is drawn from the tip and dispersed to the ground by means of wire. Moreover, the lightning rod, because of its shape, also has a preventive action against lightning. This consequently to the fact that the ground and the lightning conductor (connected to ground) are polarized by induction in response to the charge present on the bottom of the cloud. The lightning conductor so polarized, thanks to the dispersing power of the tips, helps to decrease the potential difference between the cloud and the ground, making it less likely that it reaches the minimum potential capable of beginning the download.

Due to the high currents and voltages that pass through it, the cable for the discharge of lightning can not be shielded. Generally copper, must have an adequate thickness to prevent current leakage into the surrounding space. For the same reasons, the link between the tip of the lightning rod and the grounding should be as short as possible, preferably in a straight line in particular avoiding sudden bends or turns that would increase the electrical impedance.

Sound Propagation


In a compressible fluid medium, usually air, the sound propagates as a pressure change created by the sound source. A speaker, for example, uses this mechanism. Compression spreads, but the air particles oscillate only a few micrometers around a stable position, in the same way that when a stone is thrown into water, the waves travel away from the point fall, but the water remains in the same place, it only move vertically and not follow the waves (a cap placed on the water stays in the same position without moving). In fluids, the sound wave is longitudinal, that is to say that the particles vibrate parallel to the wave traveling direction.

Solid, vibrating, can transmit a sound. The vibration propagates as in fluids, with a low oscillation of the atoms around their equilibrium position, resulting in a stress of the material, equivalent to the pressure in a fluid, but more difficult to measure. The rigidity of the material enables the wave transmission of transverse stresses.

Similarly, although to a lesser extent, the viscosity of a fluid may vary, especially in extreme conditions, the propagation equations derived for an ideal gas.

Propagation or sound célérité1 speed depends on the nature, temperature and pressure of the medium. In a perfect gas the sound propagation velocity is given by the equation:

c = \ frac {1} {\ sqrt {\ rho \ chi_S}} where \ \ rho is the density of gas and \, \ chi_S its isentropic compressibility.

It is seen that the sound propagation speed decreases

when the density of the gas increases (inertia effect)
when its compressibility (the ability to change the volume under the effect of pressure) increases.

In water, the speed of sound is 1482 m / s. In other settings, the vibrations can spread even faster. Thus in the steel, the vibrations they propagate 5,600 m / s to 5900 m / s. The sound does not travel in a vacuum, for lack of material whose vibration could spread into sound waves (sound insulation).

Thursday, 7 May 2015

Visa-for-Studio In Jordan


The study visa allows entry into Italy, for a short stay (90 days. - Type C) or long term (91 to 365 days. - Type D) for foreigners intending to attend university to study or vocational training at institutes recognized or qualified, or the stranger who is expected to perform cultural activities and ricerca.Documenti required for STUDIO Registration to Italian University
Seen to be requested only after confirmation that he was admitted to the entrance exams, according to the provisions issued by the Ministry of Education

1. application form to download an entry visa from the embassy of belonging where the guest arrives;

2. recent passport-size photograph

3. passport valid due over at least three months after visa;

4. demonstration of the availability in Italy of livelihoods, equivalent to not less than € 417.30 per month of academic year. This availability may be demonstrated by:

• exhibition of means personal or family

• financial guarantees provided by institutions and bodies of Italians established credit, by local governments, or by foreign institutions and bodies regarded as reliable by the Italian Embassy

5. statement about the availability of suitable accommodation in Italy.

History Of Electrochemistry

History of electrochemistry

The history of electrochemistry has seen a succession of many milestones in the course of its evolution, often correlated with the development of different branches of chemistry and physics: it takes in fact originated from the discovery of the principles of magnetism at the beginning of the XVI and XVII century and continues up to the theories on the conductivity and transport of electric charge.

The term relates to the study of electrochemical processes in which processing takes place of chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa.

This term was used during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, referring to an area mainly theoretical, relegated to the research laboratory; with the passing of time this term has acquired a further meaning application, thanks to the multiple applications of the theories of electrochemistry (also in commercial applications), including: the batteries, accumulators, fuel cells, the development of methods to prevent the corrosion of metals, refining techniques through electrolysis and the development of electroanalytical methods (such as voltammetry, amperometry and the electrophoresis).

Tuesday, 5 May 2015

Chemical Energy

Chemical energy

The chemical energy is an energy that varies due to the formation or breaking of chemical bonds of any type in the chemical elements involved in chemical reactions.

Since the strength of the chemical bonds is associated with the distance between the chemical species (in fact stronger chemical bonds held closer to the chemical species involved in binding), the chemical energy depends on the mutual position of the particles that constitute a substance.

It is then the energy stored in the chemical bonds and is mainly due to the sum of the potential energy of electrostatic interactions of the charges in the ponderable matter, most of the kinetic energy of the electrons.

If you consider as "zero level" of chemical energy that where there are no chemical bonds, chemical energy is negative. Ties have several different binding energy, the more stable have more negative value.

Resonance is a phenomenon chemical structure that greatly influences the chemical energy in a stabilizing way. The reactivity and kinetics of the various compounds suffer from differences of chemical energy.

The chemical energy is produced in the course of the transformations that take place at the molecular level.

The chemical energy introduced into our bodies with food, for example, allows us to live through oxidation and in general cell metabolism (cellular respiration).

Abu Abdullah Mahammad Jabir ibn Al-batani

He, like Qurra Thabit was born in Harran and also his family belonged to the sect of Sabian. But it is believed that the name "Allah Abu Muhammad" indicates that Al-Battani, unlike Thabit Qurra, was of the Islamic faith. So, a younger generation of Thabit. 

It is not inconceivable that the two are popular. He began his career as an astronomical observer (and manufacturer of astronomical instruments) in the Syrian town of Ar-Raqqah and Antioch. Is there a document (Fihrist, "Index"), the century X, certifying the highest level of fame he was gratified in his time both for the quality of his astronomical observations for his works. According to this Fihrist he observed between the years 877 and 918, while his star catalog is the year 880. His works are listed in Fihrist Kitab al-Zij and a commentary on Tetrabiblos Ptolemy.

The Kitab al-Zij is his most important work. It includes 57 chapters and covers topics will happen according to the classical scheme of Zij introduction of mathematical, astronomical theory, tables. Let's see in brief what were the most important results achieved by Al-Battani. He gave a catalog of 489 stars. He perfected the assessment of the duration of the year to 365 days, 5 hours, 48 ​​minutes, 24 seconds. Gave to the precession of the equinoxes the annual value of 54 ".5 and 23; 35 'for the obliquity of the ecliptic.

 Ascertained the progression of solar longitude of the apogee and the possibility of having annular eclipse of the sun. Some But the authority of Ptolemy at the time of Al-Battani was so great that, despite his calculations he had been made to determine the distance of the Sun is deviated greatly from that established by Ptolemy, did not dare to say so publicly. Where instead manifested with clearly their challenge to Ptolemy was the Ptolemaic method of determining the apparent diameter of the Moon: al-Battani states that the Moon can have an apparent diameter smaller than that of the Sun, which explains why they occur annular eclipses. 
He says then that same solar diameter can vary, contrary to what claimed Ptolemy. Commentators agree that the importance of Al-Battani in the development of science manifested itself especially in the influence that his work had on scientists such as Copernicus, Brahe and Galileo .

Using very precise instruments for the time, made a revision of astronomical constants listed in the Almagest, correcting them and discovering the movement solar apogee

Saturday, 2 May 2015

Centripetal Force


Centripetal force in a circular motion.
It is called centripetal force to force, or the component of the force acting on an object moving on a curved path, and is directed toward the center of curvature of the trajectory.

The term "centripetal" comes from the Latin words centrum, "center" and petere, "go to" and can be obtained from Newton's laws. Centripetal force always acts perpendicular to the direction of movement of the body on which it is applied. For an object that moves on a circular path with varying speed, the net force on the body can be decomposed into a perpendicular component that changes the direction of motion and one tangential speed parallel amending module speed.

The centripetal force should not be confused with centrifugal force, as explained in section Common misunderstandings.

Chemical Reaction

Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a transformation of the material that occurs without measurable changes of mass, in which one or more chemical species (known as "reagents") modify their structure and original composition to generate other chemical species (called "products"). This occurs through the formation or breaking of the so-called "chemical bonds intramolecular", that is, through a rearrangement of the forces of electrostatic nature which intervene between the individual atoms of which are constituted the molecular entities that are involved in the reaction. These electrostatic forces are in turn related to the effect of the outer electrons of each atom.

Some processes in which chemical reactions are involved:

the corrosion of iron in rust (which is composed of iron oxides);
the combustion of methane or other fuels (methane with oxygen is transformed into carbon dioxide and water vapor);

digestion (food are decomposed by gastric juices into chemicals absorbed by the body);
the solubilization and the formation of mixtures in liquid and solid states generates complexation reactions and dissociation.

A reaction can not take place, or is slowed to a stop or even to regress if not satisfied a number of conditions, such as the presence of the reagents to an appropriate extent and conditions of temperature, pressure and light suitable for the specific reaction.