Tuesday, 21 April 2015

Study At U S A


Since this month Thinkinlaw Law Firm, based in Chicago, will help periodically sending some articles on topics of legal type. The first article provides a general overview of the different categories of visas for the USA.

Recently the charm inherent in the concept of the "American dream" has changed significantly. The economic miracle of emerging markets and the opportunities they offer - even at the cultural level - become, increasingly, a phenomenon that can arouse the interest of young people (and not) emigrants from our own, while the economic and financial crisis that has affected the US has somehow helped to curb the enthusiasm of someone else already 'ready to go. However the United States, for many reasons, are still the country that more than others is the goal and point of landing of immigrants.

What follows is a very broad and general overview of the main categories of visas to USA, cataloged according to the purpose for which you want to enter (and / or live) in the United States. Please note that this is not a complete list of all the options for a visa, but a description of the main categories that aims to be exhaustive anyway.

Structured Cabling


In lateast buildings and offices are made of structured cabling systems, The systems are based on Category 5 or higher and RJ-45 connectors (RJ-11 twisted pairs and for telephone connections). The cables have a maximum length of 90 m, with a further 10 m to the cables commute (side apparatus: EC Equipment Cable, and the terminal side: WAC Work Area Cable). This constraint is dictated by the characteristics of the Ethernet network.

For each location to be served, one or more cables are placed in special ducts in the walls, in ceilings or floors of the building, to reach a distribution cabinet of the plane (in the jargon of the structured cabling, Floor Distributor or FD or wiring horizontal plane), usually it is a standard 19-inch rack, which can accommodate both patch panels that active equipment.

These cables are certified by a party in a patch panel in the closet, the other in a plaque on the wall or the floor near the user station. By connecting a cable from the computer trade-in to a wall outlet, and another from an exchange to a network device (such as a hub or switch), it creates an electrical connection that allows you to connect your computer to the network.

In case the dimensions of the building do not allow to serve all users with a single FD, the various FD are connected to a cabinet in the building (Building Distributor, BD), using copper cables and / or optical fiber (vertical wiring) even these certificates in patch panels. Similarly, the different buildings on a campus are connected to a closet permutation of campus, or Campus Distributor, CD.

The premises that house the cabinets should have adequate characteristics for power supply (preferably protected by a UPS), air conditioning, access control (are privileged places for intruders or to cause network failures).

Sunday, 19 April 2015

Steam Turbine


Turbine is the generic given to most motor turbomachinery. These are fluid machines, by the using of  thah a fluid passes and it continuously delivers its energy through a paddle or impeller blades.

The turbine is a rotary engine that converts energy into mechanical energy of a stream of water, steam or gas. The basic element of the turbine is the wheel or rotor, with paddles, propellers, blades or buckets placed around its circumference, such that the moving fluid produces a tangential force behind the wheel and spins. This mechanical energy is transferred through a shaft to provide movement of a machine, a compressor, an electric generator or a propeller.

The turbines are made of one or two paddle wheels, known rotor and stator, the first being that, driven by the fluid drag the axis on which the rotational movement is obtained.

So far, the turbine is one of the most efficient engines in the world (about 50%) compared to internal combustion engines and even some electrical. Back in the 20s, some inventors, including one named Thyssen, patented a steam turbine which attributed a thermodynamic efficiency of 31%.

The term turbine is also applied, as the main component, the set of several turbines connected to a generator for producing electricity.

Study In Iran

"We can establish a connection between this university (UNI) and technological universities in my country, to transfer experience and information technology issues and her students to work with us," was the theme that shone during the visit of Ambassador of the Islamic Republic Iran in Nicaragua Mr. Saeid Zare, who met with the authorities of this university.

The diplomat spoke with university officials about the importance of universities for the development of peoples, also showed great interest in the admission process running the UNI for students who wish to pursue their career in this Alma Mater. In this regard the ambassador said, you can establish an exchange of students and teachers at the UNI with colleges of engineering in Iran.

For his part, Rector of UNI, Eng. Nestor Zeledon Gallo said he was very pleased by the opening of diplomatic, to invite them to submit all documentation to the Embassy college and that it can be evaluated to realize these plans.

"For UNI it is very important this collaboration, because this exchange can allow us to update the knowledge in the field of engineering and maintaining academic quality so far enjoyed not only in Nicaragua but also at the level of the Central American region," concluded the Rector.

The Islamic Republic of Iran has a student population of 5 million students, distributed in 2,800 universities, including 2 300 public and 500 private.

Saturday, 11 April 2015

Study System in Australia

Study System in Australia

Australia is a federation in which each state is independent and has its own Ministry of Education, so each territory is authorized to operate in a different way. For example, the degree of maturity in NSW is called HSC (High School Certificate), while in Victoria is called VCE (Victoria Certificate of Education) .. We will however try to bring us back to the standards of the system.

Australia has one of the best educational systems in the world and an excellent international reputation for the standards that guarantee. Education is recognized as an essential pillar for the whole of Australia and every year the government invests billions of dollars in the development of the school system and in university research. Today, all the services offered by the schools are designed and organized to meet the needs of the student, so that his training and staff is the best .. And all this at a lower cost than other English-speaking countries! But the most significant is that graduates in Australian universities are easily found work in their area of study, both in Australia and abroad.

Secondary Education:

Includes 7 to 12th school year (usually students from 12/13 to 17/18 years). At the end of Year 12, you get the Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (SSCE), certificate whose name varies depending on the state of Australia. During the Year 11 and 12, are conducted VET courses, known as Certificate I and II.

Tertiary Education in Australia

The qualifications of the school system are classified by the government through the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF). Australia offers two academic courses: the sector Vocational Education and Training (TAFE and RTO) issuing Vocational Graduate Certificates and Vocational Graduate Diplomas, and Universities that release Diplomas and Advanced Diplomas (Higher Education). The details in the table:

Diploma and Advanced Diploma

The Diploma and Advanced Diploma programs in Australia prepare on complex theories and practical elements in a wide variety of technical roles or management.

Educational institution: TAFE or private educational institutions.
Duration: two to three years.
Prerequisites: typically a Certificate IV in the field of study; Some courses may require work experience also proven expertise in specific subjects.
Es. Diploma in Business and Advanced Diploma in Business: prepare students for positions as "supervisor" in the areas of Human Resources, Marketing, Management and Administration, or for post-secondary professional.

Bachelor's Degree

The Bachelor's degree prepare students for professional careers or courses of postgraduate study in Australia and provide an excellent preparation depth in the academic or professional. Apart from the basic materials, is the student to choose the area (major) who want to delve into his path. In Australia, the offer is extensive and includes among others: Professional Degree, Double Degree, Graduate Entry Degree and Honours Degree.

Master's Degree

The Master in Australia prepare students for advanced knowledge and skills in the area of study chosen. In detail:

Coursework Master: includes course work, project work and research. Prerequisite: Bachelor's degree or Graduate diploma.
Professional Master: includes practical projects based on the professional position. Prerequisites: senior positions in the area and proven professional experience.
Research Master: includes research projects and its thesis. Prerequisite: Bachelor's degree or Master's preliminary year or Graduate Diploma or relevant research experience.
Educational institution: University or other private entities and qualified to deliver Master.
Duration: usually two years.

Doctoral Degree

The Doctoral Degree in Australia are of two types: research and professional; both prepare students to knowledge and skills at the highest levels in the study area chosen. In detail:

Research Doctorate: research supervised by tutors. Prerequisite: Master's degree or Bachelor Honours degree.
Professional Doctorate: professional practice, research and work in the classroom. Prerequisite: Master's degree or Bachelor Honours degree.



The sublimation of a simple substance or a chemical compound is its phase transition from the solid to the gaseous state, without passing through the liquid state. 

In the current language, since it implies the passage through an equilibrium condition (see diagram phase), is also used generically to indicate the opposite process as it would be more correct to icing up or reverse sublimation.

The chemical compounds and simple substances can have three different states of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous. Their status depends on the temperature and pressure and is described by phase diagrams. Usually, in normal environmental conditions, to switch from solid to gaseous need to cross the liquid state. Under certain conditions of pressure, the temperature changes, you can go directly from a solid to a gaseous, this direct transition from ice to gaseous, was observed on the surface of Mars by the probe Phoenix. 

It is noted that the reference pressure is the vapor pressure of the substance and not the pressure of the entire system. An example of sublimation inverse consists of the sulfur vapor, which undergo sublimation for cooling at atmospheric pressure, this is the reason to the base of the deposits of sulfur often present and visible on the ground in so-called solfataras.

An application of this physical property, it is the thermo-sublimation, a technique widely used for textile printing. In chemistry, the sublimation is exploited for the purification of substances by heating under vacuum of the solid in suitable equipment. In these conditions the solid goes into aeriform phase and subsequently will be made to solidify on a cooled surface, with the impurities which will constitute the residue remaining on the bottom of the chamber of sublimation.

The German School System

The German school system

Childhood Education

In Germany, early childhood education (Kindergarten) is voluntary and parents must pay. In some areas of western Germany, there are not enough places to meet demand. According to the long waiting lists, some parents enroll children at birth to ensure a place once the child is age appropriate.

Most children go to nursery school for two or three hours in the morning. If both parents work, you can increase the time until eight or nine hours (including evenings), in which case you will pay more. Children often go to kindergarten Monday through Friday, but some also offer services for children whose parents work shifts and weekends. In some cities, there are some Kinderkrippen for children under three years offering the same services.

Primary education

Primary education (Grundschule) begins between five and half years and six and a half, depending on the month in which the child is born. The first day at primary school is a very important event for German children. It is customary to give children a bag of candy (Schultüte) on your first day of school.

The number of hours in primary school is between 20 and 30, depending on the type and age of the child. Primary education lasts four years, after which parents receive a recommendation from teachers about what kind of school is best for the child to continue their education in high school. This recommendation is based on the assessment that teachers make of the results, level and interests of children. If a child has learning difficulties, the teacher may recommend to give a special school for children with these difficulties (Sonderschule).

Secondary education

After primary school, children often go to one of these three types of secondary schools:

Hauptschule (until age 16) - prepares pupils for vocational education and ends with a Hauptschulabschluss. The Hauptschule is designed for the less academically brilliant students. After graduating usually opt for apprenticeship (Lehre) in a manual occupation, sometimes combined with part-time study on a Berufsschule.
Realschule (until age 16) - offers more options for students in middle and ends with a Realschulabschuss. The Realschule is designed for those who are going to do practical training that require more academic, as nursing knowledge, and put more emphasis on math and language skills in the manual.

Gymnasium (until 18 or 19 years) - prepares students for higher education and ends with the Abitur (a prerequisite for entering college). This is the type of school that's required, with 32-40 hours per week and lots of homework.

In some regions of Germany, there are other schools called Gesamtschule. All children attend the same school, but within it are separated according to their level. At 16 years, depending on the results they have obtained until then, they can leave school for a Lehre, or stay another 3 years to the Abitur.


music dynamics

The dynamic is the branch of mechanics that deals with the study of the motion of bodies and its causes or, in more concrete terms, the circumstances that determine it and modify it. The complete study of the mechanics also includes static and kinematics:

 the dynamic is different from the first that studies the configurations of mechanical equilibrium, the second that studies, in the abstract, all motions conceivable but not about determining which motions can occur in a particular experimental context.

The study of the dynamics is conducted primarily referring to an abstract entity, with mass but with negligible sizeof material point. All related laws of material point can then be extended to the real bodies (with mass and of finite size) interpreted as systems of material points; if we deal with bodies in which the relative distances between the points of the system must not vary over time, it is called "rigid body dynamics"; otherwise it is called "dynamic of deformable bodies."

Chemical Balance

chamical balance

The chemical equilibrium is the condition dependent on the temperature in which the concentrations of the chemical species participating in a chemical reaction does not vary in time in total. This occurs when a chemical reaction proceeds with the same speed as the reverse reaction. This means that the rate of consumption of the reactants is equal to that of the formation of the same reagents and this also applies to the products.

Similarly, one can also say that a reaction is at equilibrium when the concentration of products and reactants remains constant, although the reaction is not stopped, in the sense that it continues to take place but not lead to any increase or decrease in concentration of products and reactants, being equal to the values of the two speeds of the reaction, the direct and inverse. As can be guessed from the definition, it is a dynamic equilibrium (non-static).

Strictly speaking, all the chemical reactions should be considered in balance, but, in common practice, those in which the concentrations of the reactants are low (in comparison to the high equilibrium constant) are easily considered non equilibrium (they are known reactions to completion) because the reaction is strongly shifted towards the formation of products.

There are four characteristics common to each equilibrium reaction.

The first, as already said, is the dynamic nature of equilibrium, in which the reaction reaches a situation defined by the equality of the reactions reactant-product and product-reagent.
The second generalization is in the spontaneity of a chemical equilibrium, that is the assertion that a system spontaneously moves towards a state of equilibrium; happen if a disturbance outside the system, when left to itself, would tend to get back into equilibrium (principle of Le Chatelier).

The third is in the statement that a process can be said to be in balance if this is reversible, ie the nature and properties are the same regardless of the direction of approach to equilibrium itself.
The fourth and final generalization consists in the nature of equilibrium thermodynamics, that is, in the vision of the equilibrium state as a condition of more favorable compromise between the natural tendency of the system to reach the minimum energy and the maximum molecular chaos or entropy.

Friday, 10 April 2015

Chinese Visa For Study


Mode visa application:

Those who plan to study in China can apply for two different types of visa: if the course of study lasts less than or equal to six months must apply for a visa F (which is output even for business reasons), while X must apply for a visa if the course of study lasts more than 6 months. The procedures for requesting two visas, which are different between them, are specified below.

Applications for the Chinese visa to study (both F category, is Category X) should be or one of Chinese Visa Application Service Center (Cvasc) in Rome and Milan, or the Chinese Consulate in Florence. The consulate at the embassy in Rome and the consulate in Milan do not accept applications for ordinary visas, but only for those affixed on diplomatic passports and those of long duration of Hong Kong and Macao.

Those who submit their applications to one of the two Cvacs must complete the online form (click here to complete it) and then print it and present it at the counter when they require a visa. The question must be accompanied by the documents listed below. Contact the Cvasc or consulates if you can not apply for a visa in person and you want to send passport and documents via courier.

Procedure for visa F (courses of study up to six months)

First you need to enroll in a university or in an educational institution that is located in China
the institution requires the issuance of the certificate JW-201 or JW-202 to the Chinese Ministry of Education
the school sends a letter of admission and the certificate of the ministry, by mail or courier, to the student who wants to apply for a visa
the applicant may submit the visa application exhibiting the admission letter and the certificate of the Ministry

Procedure for visa X (courses of study over 6 months):

First you need to enroll in a university or in an educational institution that is located in China
the institution requires the issuance of the certificate JW-201 or JW-202 to the Chinese Ministry of Education
the school sends a letter of admission and the certificate of the ministry, by mail or courier, to the student who wants to apply for a visa
the applicant may submit the visa application exhibiting the admission letter and the certificate of the Ministry
the Cvacs or consulate issuing student visas where X is not specified length of stay (in the box is marked 000); this is because the student can leave for China
Once arrived in China, students must undergo a series of medical examinations (usually are the same university to organize medical examinations for freshmen)
obtained the certificate of good health, the student can go to a police station or an office for immigration, where his visa X will be converted into a temporary residence permit on the duration of the course of study (to avoid sanctions is must convert the visa within 30 days of arrival in China)

Documents required for both visas:

passport valid for at least six months

two passport photos

visa application form (complete it online or download it in pdf)

admission letter all'istuto university or school (the University is to send it to the student)

certificate JW-201 or JW-202 of the Ministry of Education of China (the university is to send it to the student)

Galileo Thermometer


The ampoule having a neutral buoyancy (center) with the 24th sheet shows the temperature.
Galileo thermometer is a thermometer comprising a glass tube containing a liquid with a higher coefficient of expansion than the water.1 and a set of blown glass ampules dipped in it.

With increasing temperature, the density of the blisters is almost constant, but not the liquid, which decreases significantly. This change alters the buoyant density of the blisters. Blister position that indicates this temperature neutral buoyancy.

Its indications are limited to a relatively small temperature range. To indicate a temperature of 18-26 ° C with an accuracy of ± 2 ° C, the device must contain at least five blisters. In addition to the low accuracy, high heat capacity makes it impossible to observe sudden changes in temperature.

Tuesday, 7 April 2015

Study Visa For Egypt


The Egyptian government said that the new procedure does not begin on 15 May, but at a date to be decided in the coming months. Will notify you as soon as possible the new dates.

From May 15 will be more difficult to go to see the pyramids and overwinter on the Red Sea. And 'these days, in fact, the news that the Egyptian government has decided to close the company's policy on visas. If you obtained before arrival at the airport with the payment of $ 25, a few months individual travelers must apply in advance to the diplomatic missions around Italy and the world, even if the bureaucratic details are not yet known.

A decision that could significantly affect the Egyptian tourism sector which today represents 11.3% of the economy of the North African country. Although Reuters spokesman of the Foreign Ministry, Abdelatty Badr, said that "nothing will change for tourist groups, who may continue to obtain a visa on arrival." And organized groups still constitute the majority of arrivals in the country.

A few years ago the same decision had lasted three days, but now the government's choice of Cairo seems destined to last. The region of this change in visa policy lies in the need expressed by the Egyptian government to be able to have more control over who enters the country given the current political situation in the Sinai region, where for months are under constant attacks by Islamist militias .

Egypt in recent years has experienced a swing in the arrival of foreign tourists: if in 2010, the last year of the Mubarak era were 14.7 million, a year later had fallen to 9.8, to go up a little in 2012, 11.5 million, and fall to about 10 million in 2013. The tourism minister, Khaled Ramy, said in recent days to Reuters that the country hopes to reach 20 million arrivals by 2020. But certainly this decision will not help growth.

Electrical Engineering


Originally this branch was called "electrical engineering", and was one of the precursors of the scope of engineering fields. The change of name to "electrical engineering" was necessary with the expansion of the topics discussed and studied, such as the electronic components within the electrical equipment, which made it necessary to adjust the training programs of this specialization.

The electrical engineering separates the early twentieth century from engineering industrial or mechanical, coinciding with the spread of the distribution of electricity. Electrical engineering from engineering was born in the sixties and seventies electronic engineering, the development of telecommunication systems such as radio and television. In the nineties of the twentieth century from the Bachelor of Electronic Engineering born telecommunications engineering. Electrical engineers have contributed decisively in the construction of the Italian telephone network. The courses in electrical engineering and telecommunications have more or less 40 years of separation from the course in electrical engineering. The Decree of the President of the Republic in 2001 328 draws fall in industrial engineering or electrical engineering mechanics from which it was detached 100 years before.

The first course of Electrical Engineering is the 1886 Royal Industrial Museum of Turin, then members will converge in the newborn Politecnico di Torino in 1905.

Currently the term "electrical engineering" is used to indicate specifically that part of electrical engineering that encompasses all the classical theories of electromagnetism applied to studies circuit.

In the US studies of electrical engineering, electronic engineering, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering and automation engineering are included in two unique courses, referred to as electrical engineering and computer engineering, for historical reasons and for reasons actual interdisciplinary.

Saturday, 4 April 2015

Organelles Of Cell


An organelle is a structurally definable area of ​​a cell with a specific role. The definition is inconsistent: some authors call only structures with membrane and organelles, so for example the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Others take the concept further and also include other structures, such as centrioles. In unicellular "organelle" in this sense is used as a term for complex structures such as scourge and eyespot.

Single-celled living organisms without a nucleus (prokaryotes) usually have no membranes inside the cell and thus not a organelles according to the first definition. However, there are prokaryotic structures that can be seen as organelles in a broader sense.

Limited membrane organelles

Mitochondria, the nucleus and plastids (chloroplasts and their relatives) are surrounded by a double membrane. Other membrane-bounded organelles have a simple membrane. These include the components of the endomembrane system and the plant vacuole. In addition, there are some specific membrane-bounded organelles that only in certain cell types or certain eukaryotic species groups, mostly unicellular occur.

Semi Autonomous organelles

Chloroplasts in the leaf blade of the moss Plagiomnium affine
Occurring in almost all eukaryotes, mitochondria and specific for algae and higher plants plastids have their own genome and its own machinery for protein synthesis. They are therefore referred to as semi-autonomous organelles'.

According to the endosymbiotic theory is seen with them phylogenetically to descendants of bacteria that were taken by early eukaryotic cells. These bacteria were integrated in the course of evolution in the cell. Due to the presence of mitochondrial precursor was the eukaryotic early, before anaerobic cell for the first time possible to use the much more effective oxygen-dependent energy. The inclusion of cyanobacteria, which evolved into the plastids, the use of sunlight for energy was possible: It emerged eukaryotic algae and thus the precursor of all plants.

Semi Autonomous organelles have a double membrane: the outer is made from the host cell is thus eukaryotic origin. It is derived from the constricted in receiving the organelle predecessor plasma membrane. The inner membrane is of prokaryotic origin. This is modified by the plasma membrane of the symbionts. It constitutes a diffusion barrier for the exchange of molecules and electrons.

Redundant structures of the bacterial cells were lost, most of the genes were transferred into the nucleus of the host cell or were also lost. Some genes but were also added to the genome of organelles, eg. As genes for the exchange of proteins and amino acids with the host cell. This left the still existing remains of the one-circular DNA molecule prokaryotic genome and structures that are important for the function of organelles.

Semi Autonomous organelles replicate autonomously by division. In the division of the host cell they are distributed to the daughter cells.

Other common membrane-bounded organelles

In addition to the semiautonomous organelles only the nucleus has a double membrane, the nuclear envelope. The organelles described in this section are found in all cells of an organism in general. These include plants in the vacuole and in all eukaryotes several components of the endomembrane system: the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and peroxisomes. A brief description of these organelles found in Article cell at this point. Transport vesicles, which provide material exchange between the different components, are also the endomembrane system. Their inclusion in the definition of an organelle is mixed: Sometimes individual vesicles are called organelles, sometimes not.



Industry is all engaged in the production of goods of economic interest with massive criterion (against which differs from crafts), beginning as a transformation of raw materials into semi-finished or finished products. It falls in the secondary sector of the economy.

The term derives from the Latin industry (-a), which can mean hard work, work, ingenuity, diligence, and which in turn comes from endo- (inside) and -struo (build). The term is also used to indicate a process which, starting from a product called the "first" (raw) it produces a "second" (artifact) with added value.

The main aim of the industry is to produce the best and the best cost / benefit of the goods requested. In economics represents all sectors of a system responsible for the production of goods and services on a large scale, using studies and / or contributions mainly produced by scholars of industrial economics and business economics.

According to the traditional economy, the product of the industry is also termed "good secondary" compared to the "primary good" of agriculture and the "tertiary" services, recently developed. The industry is divided into several sectors, each with its own specialization and is constantly changing, adapting each time to the needs of the consumer and new production technologies.

The aim of the industry is to produce the best cost / benefit ratio, which in economic terms means with maximum profit for your money: and this is the vocation of the industry that does not always coincide with that of the territory. In a system of command economy industry, released by the logic of profit, can be addressed to the fullest. The industries in fact bring jobs both directly and in related but need strong infrastructure, and to build an industrial site you must do before a feasibility study.

The added value, in short, is what the production process through technology gives, transforming the raw product into a finished product, ready to be introduced in the chain of distribution. Ultimately, the industry is an organized system to produce wealth, constituted precisely by the added value.

Thursday, 2 April 2015

Study In Italy


Only the entry visa issued in Italy for study purposes is valid for enrollment in courses of study at the Italian institutions of higher education (IS). We do not accept any other type of visa.

If, because of non-EU nationals, still reside abroad and wish to enroll on a course of IS in Italy, you have therefore managed contact the competent Italian diplomatic mission to make you release the passport for a visa for study, said succinctly study visa .

The competent Italian diplomatic missions (embassies, consulates) are the authorities not only to verify whether the candidates meet the requirements necessary to obtain a student visa, but also to receive their applications for pre-registration, and forward them to the individual Italian institutions of IS.


The study visa will be issued only upon demonstration that you:

in Italy you have to adequate housing;
possess sufficient financial resources to keep you (go to means of livelihood);
you are entitled to health care in Italy (go to Health Insurance).
you have the amount of money required to return to your country, or you have already purchased a valid return ticket.


While waiting for appropriate action in the context of specific agreements between Italy and Croatia, the Croatian students commuters may be entered without their obligation to apply for a residence permit, but only on presentation of an entry visa (possibly a visa to multiple inputs) .
The same rule (see point A above) also applies to foreign students who are legally resident in the Republic of San Marino.

Blood Circulation


The circulatory system or cardiovascular is the set of organs responsible for the transport of various fluids - such as blood and, in a more general, the sap - who have the primary task to make the necessary nutrients for the body's cells their livelihood.

In the human being and in all vertebrates, the heart is the body and blood of the engine is the central element of the apparatus, which also includes the blood vessels (arteries and veins) and lymphatic vessels.

Closely related to the circulatory organs are then hematopoietic and lymphoid organs, which are responsible for the continuous production of formed elements in the blood and lymph.

In the different groups of multicellular animals circulation ensures the survival of the organism and the metabolism of every cell of the body, provides chemicals and maintains the physiological properties. The blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide in the opposite direction (see also breathing).

From the digestive processes that occur in the digestive system, derived nutrients such as lipids, sugars and proteins that are transported in each tissue, there used and, if necessary, can be further modified or conserved. The substances that remain from the metabolism, also referred to as waste products or catabolites (for example, urea and uric acid), are then eliminated from other tissues or organs (such as the kidneys and the colon).

The blood also carries the chemical messengers such as hormones, cells of the immune system and the components of blood clotting in the body.

Wednesday, 1 April 2015

Visa For Study Abroad In Australia And New Zealand


For a study period from three months for a student visa is required. Courses lasting less than three months (z. B. English courses) only need a tourist visa.

After the universVisa for study abroad in Australia or New Zealand

For a study period from three months for a student visa is required. Courses lasting less than three months (z. B. English courses) only need a tourist visa.

After the university has the application documents checked, she sent an Offer Letter (offer of admission) or a Letter of Conditional Offer (if still a proof must be provided).

Through the transfer of tuition finally the student is enrolled in educational space. After the tuition fees have been paid, the student will be enrolled at the (Confirmation of Enrolment) from the university. Only then is the student visa can be applied.

The Assessment Level 1. This visa is valid for all students from Germany, Austria and Switzerland can'll only applied for onlineity has the application documents checked, she sent an Offer Letter (offer of admission) or a Letter of Conditional Offer (if still a proof must be provided).

Through the transfer of tuition finally the student is enrolled in educational space. After the tuition fees have been paid, the student will be enrolled at the (Confirmation of Enrolment) from the university. Only then is the student visa can be applied.

Electric Motors And Generators


If an electrical conductor moves across a magnetic field in it an electrical voltage is induced; it is all the higher, the faster the movement. Accordingly, the magnetic field in the stator rotating rotor of an electric motor or magnetic rotor of a generator in its windings induces a voltage. This voltage is called for motors back EMF. It does not matter what voltage is actually applied to the motor or generator - the difference between the two voltages drops at the ohmic resistance of the windings or caused by leakage currents.

Increases the speed of a DC motor to the extent that the EMF approaches the applied voltage, the current consumption and the speed drops no longer go higher. With regard to the back-emf of a DC motor can thus calculate the limit speed for a given voltage.

The back EMF of a DC motor and other motors can be used for its control and speed control. This approach is used, but also in electronically commutated motors and drives for asynchronous motors in modern, for example, the case of small permanent-magnet motors for driving cassette tape recorders.

Separately excited direct-current motors can be increased by field weakening in its rotational speed - the back EMF now requires a higher speed, to achieve the value of the operating voltage.

And asynchronous motors induce a back EMF - here induces the squirrel-cage rotor rotating magnetic field in the stator windings an AC voltage that opposes the current consumption when the rotor reaches the rated speed.

The emf of stepper motors limited their dynamics and torque at high speeds.

The electromotive force is in generators nearly equal to the open circuit voltage. The generated voltage or the EMF of generators may be varied by varying the rotational speed or of the excitation field.