Sunday, 29 March 2015

International study in America


American University System:

In the United States, higher education part of college, at the end of high school (our school) and then follow three steps to "Ph. D. "(Philosophiae Doctor), the qualification more qualified, which corresponds to the doctorate.
After graduation, students have access to courses at under graduate level who have two-year or four-year. The first two years are preliminary and are the last of specialization.

The qualification granted by the college is the "Bachelor" ("Bachelor of arts" for the humanities, "Bachelor of Science" for scientific ones, or "Bachelor's degree" for the administration, architecture, jurisprudence, pedagogy and so on). The real specialization is the "master's degree", the license necessary for access to many professions (such as surgeon, dentist, lawyer, architect, engineer).

Essential condition to attend university in the United States is the knowledge of the language that will be assessed through the TOEFL (Test of Inglese as a Foreign Language), the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) or the Standard Achievement Test, which is good to sign up with a year in advance.


Choose the university 12-18 months before
Exceed 12 months before admission test
Require the application form before 12 months
Send the application form 8-9 months before
Accept the offer of admission 3-4 months before

Economic Importance Of Chemistry

The chemical industry is - especially in Germany - a very important sector: In Germany, sales of the chemical industry is in excess of 100 billion euros, the number of employees was after the reunification of Germany at about 700,000 and is now fallen below 500,000.

It provides on the one hand basic chemicals such as sulfuric acid or ammonia forth often. In quantities of millions of tons per year, which they then used for example for the production of fertilizers and plastics On the other hand, the chemical industry produces many complex substances, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (drugs) and pesticides (pesticides), tailored for specific applications. The production of computers, fuels and lubricants for the automotive industry and many other technical products is impossible without industrially produced chemicals.

Thursday, 12 March 2015

Parts Of Speech

parts of speech

The words of a language are divided according to various aspects in parts of speech. The criteria of the subdivision of parts of speech are specific to individual languages, so universal. Even within individual languages subdivisions in parts of speech vary according to the number of parts of speech requests and according to their definition.

According to their function within a sentence, a word is divided into syntactic categories. The adjectives in German, for example, are found before the noun reference and after the article.

The morphology distinguishes the words from the point of view of the possibility of flexion: Italian verbs are conjugated for example, and therefore have different temporal forms, such as infinity, the imperative, the conjunctive, participles, etc. The morphological criterion applies of course to the so-called inflectional languages, such as Italian, German, Sanskrit or Latin. In English, the issue becomes problematic, while for the Chinese, a language that is insulating, this criterion is not applicable.

More universal are the functional provisions, which have recently been made, as in the field theory of psycholinguist Karl Bühler, which divides the indexes ("I", "here", "now" etc.) By linguistic symbols ("fast" "woman", "build"). This approach has been extended in the pragmatic functional.

Business Partnership


The partnership (partenaire from French, English partnership) is a comparison of different parts (public or private, economic and social forces) on the implementation of measures aimed at economic development, territorial development and social integration.

Regarding the economic-business side, we can say that it is in kind of activity where skilled labor is by far the most important factor of production, as is the case in professional activities (lawyers, consultants, ..). For these activities, the capital is a secondary asset.

The term refers to the relationships that are needed, similar to the twinning between cities.

It is a method widely used at Community level, inspired by the importance that these treaties assign to the role of civil society organizations. Consistent with this approach, and formalizing a practice and a common sense already widespread, the European Commission considers the "participation" among the basic principles of good governance in the European Union. According to the White Paper on Governance.

In fact, the quality, relevance and effectiveness of EU policies depend from the large investment that will ensure throughout their journey, from conception to implementation. According to this approach, the involvement of civil society "organized" makes essentially the best policies, and more visible to European citizens the effectiveness of the responses that the European institutions and national damage to their needs. This setting has become heritage of the Community institutions, which place it at the base of future policies. The primary objective of having a good governance as a precondition for the effectiveness of European policies was, in fact, recently reaffirmed by the setting of the Europe 2020 strategy document for smart, sustainable and inclusive European Union.

Tuesday, 10 March 2015

Schooling Year In America


Your dream is to study in America? Probably your favorite rock stars are American, you've seen dozens of films set in the States, chew hamburgers and chips and maybe you are also already in the United States on vacation with your family.

Now you have the great opportunity to live abroad for a long time and attend high school in America, to study in America.

A school year in America: the most significant experience of your life!

During the year in America will find that the United States is a huge country, full of contradictions and contrasts but also the country where everyone has the opportunity to express their personality and emerge.

The families live in small towns where the movements are easy, where the rhythms of the day are more "slow" and everyone knows everyone. In your school in America may be the only "exchange student" Italian and this will allow you to quickly master the English and speak casually you many friends, the Americans are open and sociable and love very much Italy, prepared to answer many questions!

Wireless Power


The transfer of wireless energy (or wireless) is the transmission of electrical energy from a power supply to an electric load without the use of cables that form the conductor.

The transmission of wireless energy is useful in the case where connections with the normal wires prove complex or impossible to achieve. The problem of the transmission of electrical energy without wires differs from that of wireless telecommunications such as, for example, to the radio. In the second case, in fact,

The portion of the energy received becomes critical only if it is too weak to be distinguished from the signal with respect to all the noise (noise). [1] With the wireless power, efficiency is by far the single most significant. A large part of the energy sent from the plant's generation has in fact arrive at the receiver in order to work properly.

The most common form of wireless energy transfer is performed using the method of electromagnetic induction. Other methods include electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or laser. [2]

Monday, 9 March 2015



Physiotherapy (from the greek = Φυσιο natural θεραπεία = therapy) is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with diseases or dysfunctions congenital or acquired in the neuromusculoskeletal and visceral cross of the multiple therapeutic intervention, like : physical therapy, labor-intensive / manipulative therapy, massage therapy, postural therapy, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and other.

Physiotherapy is practiced by a doctor of physical therapy (Physiotherapist), professional graduate in the class of health rehabilitation.

The physiotherapist shall exercise its powers with ownership and professional autonomy, within the freelance or in the context of multidisciplinary team with medical specialists and / or other health care professions.



Spaceship (also called starship) is a spacecraft designed for interstellar travel, that is able to reach stellar systems different from the starting one.

Science fiction (especially the genre of space opera) is full of stories that describe this kind of vehicles, and over the years many authors have described spaceships of various forms: in some souls the main spacecraft had the shape of a Japanese battleship of the second world War, in the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy there are spaceships shaped yellow brick, while the classic alien spaceships fifties are the famous flying saucers.

Humanity has not ever built a real spaceship, yet many scientists (like Freeman Dyson and his Project Orion) discussed various engineering assumptions regarding the ability to engage in the future of interstellar travel.

Saturday, 7 March 2015



Relays are electromechanical components. They are mainly used for the following applications:

simultaneously and Floating connecting several load circuits with only one control circuit
for switching high electrical performance with low power (amplifier)
to achieve electrical isolation between steuerndem and a switching circuit
to low switching resistances in the closed state of the contact to achieve with very large contact resistance in the open state

Advantages and disadvantages

Electromechanical relays have been replaced in many applications of electronic switches which operate with transistors. Relays have some disadvantages compared to transistors, but also advantages, among others:


Depending on the insulation capacity of the air pressure or on the height above sea level (except for hermetically sealed relay box)
Vibration and shock sensitivity
Noise when switching

high and fall time (milliseconds compared to micro- and nano seconds in semiconductors, ie three to six orders of magnitude)
depending on the contact material, the contact resistance with the service life can change depending on the connected load

principal wear (electrical and mechanical), that is, it must always have the maximum possible number of switching life of the unit are compared


low contact resistance in the milliohm combined with low capacity of the switching path
high starting power and high overload
high insulation resistance and high blocking voltage of the switching path

Relays require no cooling (exceptions are semiconductor relays at high loads)
Relays can switch slightest signals to high RF performance and show this little tendency to crosstalk
Relays depending on the contact material and short-circuit current turn short circuits, without losing their function

Switching state is often seen with the naked eye
Immunity by pronounced hysteresis and robustness of the coil, it takes surge several times without prejudice towards (EMC and ESD)

Types Of Property

types of property

1. Joint ownership

Common property within the meaning of the Condominium Act are the property and parts, equipment or facilities of the building that are not in private property or the property of a third party (§ 1 para 5 WEG). Parts of the building that are necessary for its existence, or security, as well as equipment or facilities that serve the common use of the owners are not the subject of private property, even if you are in the area of ​​standing in the freehold premises are (§ 5 para. 2 WEG).

2. Special property

There are two types of private property

2.1 Residential Property

Residential property is private property in a gated apartment in connection with the ownership share in the common property to which it belongs (§ 1 para. 2 WEG).

2.2 Fractional Ownership

Part of the property is private property in sealed, non-residential serving rooms of a building in conjunction with the co-ownership of the common property, to which it belongs (§ 1 para. 3 WEG).

3. The subject of private property

Subject of private property under § 3 para. 1 WAY certain spaces and belonging to these spaces components of the building can be altered, removed or added without effecting the common property or a system based on private property rights of another owner about by also affected § 14 WEG permissible level or changed the exterior design of the building (§ 5 Abs. 1 WEG). From the definition of § 5 Abs. 1 WEG subject matter and content of private property it follows that private property in the two embodiments of the residential property as part of the property is always room property.

Friday, 6 March 2015



The grammar is the "art of reading and writing," referred to in Linguistics (Linguistics) any form a systematic language description. The notion of grammar is one of the rules themselves, on the other hand, grammar used for the theory of a specific language or language family. Parts of the newer grammatical research as to the question, how far can reduce mainly natural language to formal languages .

The adjectives grammatically and grammatically (from late Latin grammatical calis) "the grammar concerning" are now mostly synonymous in the meanings or "the rules of grammar corresponding" is used. In some cases the word grammatically, the latter meaning but are not allocated.

Types Of Business

Business Service

Business Service

Are dedicated to servicing business, whether an individual or other businesses.

Examples of service businesses are restaurants, hotels, beauty salons, spas, gyms, medical centers, law firms, engineering studies, travel agencies, real estate agencies, construction , banks, financial, insurance, transport companies, schools, consultancies, clothing shops, repair shops, etc.

Production or manufacturing business

Are dedicated to the transformation of raw materials into final products or supplies business.

Examples of production businesses are automobile factories, furniture factories, mills appliances, textile mills, etc.

Business extraction

Are dedicated to the extraction of natural resources business.

Business Examples are the mining extraction, fisheries, timber companies, oil companies, livestock enterprises, etc.

Business retail (retail)

Are dedicated to buying products in quantity, and then sell retail to the public business.

These businesses usually have a physical store where inventory is stored, and shelves where they offer and promote products.

Examples of retail businesses are clothing stores, hardware stores, warehouses, bazaars, pharmacies, appliance stores, parts stores, etc.

Business wholesales (wholesale)

They are businesses that act as intermediaries between business production and business of retail; buy their products in quantity to the first, then also sell them in quantity to the latter.

Examples sales business wholesales are distributors of beverages, food distributors, distributors of building materials, etc.



The bus is a term used in electrical engineering, power supply and high-voltage technology. Under a busbar is meant an arrangement of conductors that serve as the central distribution of electrical energy, as all incoming and outgoing lines are connected to the busbars.

Four-pole busbar for low voltage

Single busbars have the advantage to be particularly clear. To achieve redundancy of multiple busbars are used in switchgear for high-voltage normally.

In very large systems quadruple busbars are used. These multiple busbars are then constructed in parallel and can optionally be used. Often busbars are also in the longitudinal direction into two or more parts, the so-called blocks or busbar sections divided. Individual sections of a bus bar can be operated so independently. The use of multiple busbars offers the possibility to run quiet and restless consumers at different busbars or unlock busbar sections for maintenance, while consumers are connected to the other bus bars.

Busbars are made of aluminum or copper and are usually uninsulated, which simplifies the installation of connection and switching elements. The touch must be ensured by the housing of the switchgear, however. Since the busbars offer no more accidental contact to open the housing, one finds such investments mostly in major distributions where access is restricted by further security measures accordingly trained electricians.

Wednesday, 4 March 2015

Nuclear Physics


Nuclear physics is operated both theoretically and experimentally. Its key theoretical tool is quantum mechanics. Experimental tools are for. As particle detectors and radiation detectors, particle accelerators and vacuum technology.

The object of the "pure" nuclear physics in the sense of basic research is the elucidation and explanation of the core structure, so the details of the structure of atomic nuclei.

From the study of radioactivity and of reactions with nuclei, many applications have developed, for example,

Energy from nuclear reactions by nuclear reactors and nuclear fusion reactors,
medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (such as scintigraphy, brachytherapy), combined nuclear medicine called

Chemical applications in radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry,

Procedures for preventive damage detection in pipelines by gamma radiation,

Production of material surfaces with special properties by ion implantation,

Helper methods for other research areas such as radiocarbon dating in archeology or Kosmochemie.

Typical orders of magnitude in the field of atomic nuclei and nuclear processes

Lengths: 1 Fermi = 1 fm = 10-15 m

Energy: 100 keV to 100 MeV

The constituents of the nucleus, the nucleons: protons and neutrons. The number of protons in a core is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral atom. Z determines the chemical properties of atoms and is therefore called the atomic number (or with respect to the nucleus and atomic number). The mass of the nucleus is determined by the number of all A nucleons and is therefore also called the mass number. As you can see, the neutron number N = A - Z. atoms having the same atomic number but different mass number isotopes are called. The physical properties of the core depends both on the atomic number and the number of neutrons from the chemical properties (almost) only on the atomic number.

In the description of nuclear reactions and scattering processes, the concept of the cross section of importance. The cross section for a given process is a measure of the probability that this process occurs in each case.

Application Of Mutual Induction


Principle of inductive coupling, with the Description field (A) and as a network model (B)
In the scope of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the mutual inductance referred to as magnetic coupling or inductive coupling, and describes the undesirable as a rule, magnetic coupling of adjacent electrical circuits. Caused by the current in a circuit magnetic flux, like the adjacent circuit diagram example of the circuit consisting of the AC voltage source U1, caused by magnetic coupling in the second circuit, shown with the AC voltage source U2, an additional induced source voltage, which in this circuit as an undesirable disturbance may occur.

The modeling can be implemented as appropriate as a field model (A) with the variable magnetic field, or equivalent to take place in the field of network theory by means of the mutual inductance M's, as shown in the right figure in case (B). The induced voltage against Ug_ {2} in the second conductor loop, which is due to the current i_ 1 from the first conductor loop is:

Ug_ {2} = M_ {s} \ cdot \ frac {\ mathrm {d} i_ 1} {\ mathrm {d} t}
Due to the symmetry of a mutual inductance Ms is a reciprocal four-terminal network.

Due to the higher energy density of the magnetic field as compared to the electric field, a relatively high power transmission may be achieved at intermediate frequencies by means of inductive coupling. This fact is exploited in transformers or electrical drive systems such as the gap motor.

In the field of communications, the inductive coupling is utilized as part of the inductive transmission, for example in the contactless signal transmission between the sensor signal of a sensor and display device or contactless chip cards, so-called RFID.

Tuesday, 3 March 2015

Newtons Law Of Gravitation


Gravitation is the force of mutual attraction experienced bodies by having a certain mass. The existence of this force was established by the English mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton in s. XVII, who also developed to its formulation called calculus of fluxions (what today is known as integral calculus).

Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642, in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. When he was three, his widowed mother remarried and left him in the care of his grandmother. The widowed a second time, he decided to send him to a primary school in Grantham. In the summer of 1661 he entered Trinity College, University of Cambridge, where he received his title of professor.

During that time he devoted himself to the study and research of the latest advances in mathematics and natural philosophy. Almost immediately, he made fundamental discoveries that were very useful in his scientific career. He also discovered the theory of light and optics, formulated the laws of motion and deduced from them the law of universal gravitation.

The law formulated by Newton and called the law of universal gravitation states that the force of attraction experienced by two bodies endowed with mass is directly proportional to the product of their masses and opposite to the square of the distance between them ( law of inverse square of the distance). The law includes a proportionality constant (G) is called the constant of gravitation and whose value, determined by very precise experiments, is:

6,670. 10-11 Nm² / kg².

To determine the gravitational field associated with a body with a radius and a certain mass, the acceleration with which a body falls Test (radio and mass unit) within this field is set. By applying Newton's second law taking the values of the force of gravity and a known mass, one can obtain the acceleration of gravity.
Such acceleration has different values depending on the body on which it is measured; so, for the earth is considered a value of 9.8 m / s (equivalent to 9.8 N / kg), while the value obtained for the surface of the moon is only 1.6 m / s², ie about six times lower than that for our planet, and one of the giant planets of the solar system, Jupiter, this value would be about 24.9 m / s².

In an isolated system consisting of two bodies, one of which rotates around the other, with the former having a much smaller than the second mass and describing a stable circular orbit around the body that occupies the center, centrifugal force has a value equal to the centripetal due to the existence of universal gravitation.

From considerations such as this one can deduce Kepler's laws (the third), which relates the radius of the orbit described a body around another center, with the time it takes to sweep the area that encloses this orbit, and states that time is proportional to 3/2 of the radius. This result is of universal application and is also true for the elliptical orbits, of which circular orbit is a special case in which the major and minor semiaxes are equal.

Blaise Pascal - Biography



PortraitAm June 19, 1623 is Blaise Pascal, the son of Étienne Pascal, higher tax official of Clermont (1588-1651) and Antoinette Pascal, born Begon (1596-1626), Clermont (Auvergne), Rue des Gras born. He was baptized on 27 June.

He has two sisters: Gilberte (1620-1687) and Jacqueline (1625-1661), who take both major influence on the development of Pascal. At an early age makes itself at Blaise Pascal extremely fragile physical condition noticeable.


Blaise Pascal's mother died in 1626. Pascal's father buys the Office of the second President of the Cour des Aides (Tax Court) for 31600 livres.

The father leaves 1631 Clermont-Ferrand and settled with his three children (born in 1625 by Jacqueline) to Paris, but retains his office.
He teaches his children according to the methods of education with a focus on Montaigne's ancient languages. The father comes in close contact with both literary and scientific and philosophical elites.

Blaise Pascal developed in this intellectual atmosphere to Pascal's birthplace A mathematical 'wunderkind', although he initially following the example of Montaigne, instructed by his father only in the ancient languages. About the methodical and deliberate actions of the father's sister reported:

"It was his guiding principle for this education, always make sure that this child was superior to his work, and that's why he did not want to teach him the Latin language before the twelfth year, so he will learn more easily.
But he let him now not idle because he taught him all things which he found him capable. He generally showed him the nature of language; He showed him how they had been attributed to certain grammatical rules; that these rules have exceptions that you have carefully designated; and that they had found a way in this manner, notify all languages from country to country. This general idea brought order into his mind and showed him the reason for the rules of grammar; and so he did, as he then learned why he did it, and turned his attention very things that demanded the most attention. "

His natural talent shows, inter alia, that he the first 32 sets of Euclidean geometry derived independently as a child. Early on, he participates in the meetings of the "Académie Mersenne," one of the previous sections of the "Académie des sciences". There he met, among others René Descartes know.

But not only Blaise turns out to be a child prodigy, his sister Jacqueline has a special talent. She writes even as a 12 year old verses that can recognize extraordinary poetic talent.
1638 father, who had protested against a financial regulation must leave Paris and flees into the province, in the Auvergne, in order to escape the Bastille.
Jacqueline, after playing in front of Cardinal Richelieu, the most powerful man in France, a role in a comedy of Madame de Scudéry 'Le prince déguisé', to implore and receive the pardon of her father. This is sent by the king in 1639 as the authorized Commissioner for the place in ClermontSteuerwesen to Rouen. He assists the Registrar Séguier 1640 at the bloody suppression of a riot.

Blaise Pascal's 1640 first work printed 'Essai sur les coniques' (Treatise on Conic Sections). This mathematical feat makes him who is just 16 years old, suddenly in the scientific world known.


1633 Saint-Cyran is - in fact you called Jean de Vergier Hauranne (1581-1643) as a preacher and confessor in the important Parisian convent Port-Royal.
He is a friend of Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), author of 'Augustine' and the namesake of the church reform movement of Jansenism.

To the monastery numerous Parisian bourgeois families, including the famous Arnauld family will gather.

Monday, 2 March 2015

The University of Naples

universty of neples

The University of Naples, in the 13th century, Europe's first university that taught without papal bull. Again until the 16th century another Lutheran universities were founded without papal bull. In addition, many were Calvinist universities in the universities.

Although they offered quasi-university education, but did not have the Imperial University of privilege and could therefore not grant academic degrees side. These institutions are not included in the list.

Non-European, non-colonial colleges were characterized traditionally characterized by a strong focus on religious and philosophical curriculum. Not least because they were historically not be addressed as a university that was as an educational institution, a genuine creation of the European Middle Ages.  It was not until the late 19th century, the modern European university concept was taken outside the European culture. Among the universities with the longest history outside of Europe include the University of Fez, the Al-Azhar University in Cairo, the Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Sankore Madrasah in Timbuktu, the Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul and the University of Istanbul.

The Ideal Gas Law

gas law

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of ideal gas, a hypothetical gas of point particles, attraction or repulsion without them and whose collisions are perfectly elastic (conservation of momentum and kinetic energy). The kinetic energy is proportional to the temperature in an ideal gas. Real gases that approximate the behavior of ideal gas are monatomic gases at low pressure and high temperature.

In 1648, the chemist Jan Baptist van Heltmont created the word gas, from the Greek word kaos (disorder) to define the genesis characteristics of carbon dioxide. This name was later extended to all gaseous bodies and is used to designate one of the states of matter.

The main feature of the gasses solids and liquids, they can not be seen or touched, but composed of atoms and molecules are also found.

Because of the nature of the gas is in its molecules, widely separated from each other and each with random movements. As with the two other states of matter, the gas can also be transformed (in liquid) if subjected to a temperature reduction. This process is called condensation.

Most gases needed to achieve very low condensing temperatures. For example, in the case of oxygen required temperature is 183 ° C.

The first gas laws were developed from the late seventeenth century, apparently independently by August Krönig in 1856 1 and Rudolf Clausius in 1857.2 The universal gas constant was discovered and first introduced in the law of ideal gases instead of a large number of specific gases constants described by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1874.3 May 4

In this century, scientists began to realize that the relationship between pressure, volume and temperature of a gas sample in a closed system, we could get a formula that would be valid for all gases. These behave like a wide variety of conditions due to good approximation with molecules that are further separated, and today the state equation for an ideal gas is derived from the kinetic theory.