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Wednesday, 4 February 2015

Trigonometry

Trigonometry


Trigonometry (from the greek Trigonon (τρίγωνον, triangle) and Metron (μέτρον, measure): resolution of the triangle) is the part of mathematics that studies triangles starting from their corners. The main task of trigonometry, as well as reveals the etymology of the name, is to calculate the measures that characterize the elements of a triangle (the sides, corners, medians, etc.) starting from other measures already known (at least three, of which at least a length), by means of special functions. 

This task is referred to as the resolution of the triangle. You can also make use of trigonometric calculations in solving problems related to more complex geometric shapes, such as polygons or solid geometrical figures, and in many other branches of mathematics.

Trigonometric functions (the most important of which are the sine and cosine), introduced in this area, are also used independently from the geometry, appearing in other fields of mathematics and its applications, for example in connection with the function exponential or with vector operations.


For many centuries, trigonometry had his progress almost exclusively the work of great astronomers and geographers. In fact, the foundation of this science is due to Hipparchus and Ptolemy, both astronomers and geographers that most mathematicians. Significant contributions were made to this science by the Arabs, from the French Gersonides and later by Copernicus and Tycho Brahe, aims to describe and predict ever more precisely the celestial phenomena, also for a more accurate and convenient calculation of longitudes and latitudes.