Saturday, 31 January 2015

The Helium Gas


Helium is a colorless, odorless gas. It is tasteless and non-toxic. Since it has a higher speed of sound in comparison to normal air, it is carelessly sometimes inhaled to produce a voice.

Helium is one of the so-called noble gases - not because it is particularly valuable - but because these substances can hardly enter into chemical compounds and one can avoid surprises so in their use. This is known as a typical reaction inertia, resulting in the use as a protective gas results in the industry. Neon and xenon also belong to the group of the noble gases.

Helium is obtained primarily from natural gas. With up to 7%, it is one of the main components of this valuable commodity. However, it also arises from the decay of radioactive substances such as uranium.

One cubic meter of helium has a mass of about 180 grams under normal conditions. Air is 7 times heavier. Since helium is lighter than air, it rises upward accordingly.

Helium gas is also a natural choice for filling balloons and airships, because it is not flammable. What, in contrast with hydrogen can happen Ballonfüllgas, showed not least the "Hindenburg disaster," when in 1937 the so-called Zeppelin in the landing caught fire and burst into flames within seconds.

There are now even for laymen and private consumers easy-to-use helium bottles with special valves for filling balloons and foil balloon. This is a very special party insert anything in the way.

MBA At Uiversity of London

universty of london

Masters of Business Administration (MBA) degree programs are post graduate in management, in their own league. The MBA is the offer traditional academic for management education. It is often condensed as MBA and its opposite Master of Science (MSc) and Master of Arts (MA) is certainly a point in a program only.

Having a Master in Tourism gives you a great advantage in reaching managerial positions in the tourism industry. You get to be part of the leaders of the coveted tourism industry. This MBA equips you with the analytical and critical decision-making skills emphasizing on strategy and management, as well as the conceptual skills in the tourism sector.

UK is more than 300 years and is divided into four constituent nations: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK has been a center of learning for the last 1000 years and has many ancient and distinguished universities. Foreign students represent a significant portion of the student body at universities in the United Kingdom.

London is the capital of the UK, the most populous region and where the royal family lives. It has the largest concentration of higher education in Europe, with 412,000 students from 43 universities.

The Potential Energy

potintial energy

The potential energy is the energy, which is defined by its current configuration in itself or its position in a force field will. The SI unit of potential energy is the joule (symbol J unit). A body may, depending on its location,
 For example, a gravitational field or an electric field have different potential energy.

Potential energy is, for example, the energy that a body has its elevated location: If a stone falls from height of 20 meters, it has double the capacity for work than at 10 meter height of fall. During If the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy or other forms of energy and reduced. In hydro power plants can convert potential energy of the water of a reservoir into electrical energy.

Like other forms of energy, the potential energy is a state variable of a physical system. In a closed system, the potential energy as conditions change while increasing or decreasing, such as displacement of the body, at its height, change or excitation of an atom by radiation. Because of the principle of conservation of energy then takes but another form of energy (eg. As kinetic energy, electric field energy) to the same extent from.

First Landing on The Moon


Since December 1972, no one has walked on the moon. Among the first steps of Neil Armstrong on the moon and those of his compatriot Eugene Cernan three years later, only twelve astronauts have had the privilege of treading an alien soil ... And yet, the "giant leap for mankind "fire Neil Armstrong was the beginning of an era when travel and distant conquests were becoming commonplace. And for good reason! The feat Armstrong and her fellow Apollo 11 had taken place thirteen years after the putting into orbit the first artificial satellite - Sputnik in 1957 - and sixty-six years after the first flight of the Wright brothers. Progress were to continue at this pace.

"NASA wants to see beyond. So that as if seized with enthusiasm, officials say the next step in human space exploration must be a landing on Mars, Space Administration has signed its first contracts for the construction of a space station and the establishment of a shuttle system between Earth and space, "wrote Le Monde on the front page, July 26, 1969. the case was heard: from to Step outside of our country and stay would be as simple as taking a plane. Since then, hundreds of astronauts have certainly left Earth for a few days or a few months; more recently, wealthy tourists could imitate them. But never again exceeded the suburbs of the Earth.

What has happened since? Of course, one of the motivations of Americans, the Cold War was to outdo the Soviets after they have blown past their politeness putting Sputnik into orbit. This rivalry between the two blocs allowed to pass to the opinion of the public spending huge money although they were justified by the major technological advances that have resulted from the conquest of space.

Return to the Moon, Mars or conquer venture on an asteroid undoubtedly bring a lot of new discoveries that have their utility for the common man - NASA has listed, as recalled by a Swiss scientist on his blog. By initiating the Constellation program in 2004, George W. Bush launched a new era of space exploration to Mars in sight via the Moon. Alas, the economic crisis is over there and his successor as head of the United States had to abandon the project.

The time is realpolitik. We hardly talk about "space race" but to "exploration". And the exploration of a part of the universe is now done remotely. The latest example, the first laps of Curiosity on Mars. A project to 2 billion euros against 98 billion for the Apollo program. The probe is already at work, transmitting fantastic images with Earthlings we are, so that we always fear the effects of a round trip of 500 days to the Red Planet on the body and mind of a team of astronauts.

The cost of Curiosity Mars rover launched in August, compared to other space exploration programs.
Nevertheless, other nations are already in position to send in turn, men - and without doubt, the first woman - to the moon. To this end, China has already sent two probes (Chang'e 1 and 2) around our satellite. The next step is planned for 2013: Chang'e 3 mission should include the landing of a module responsible for scientific analysis.

This will be the first moon landing in China, which is gearing up to establish itself as a member of the exclusive club of space powers. A subsequent mission provides, for its part, the return of a lunar probe on Earth. The program is then supposed to culminate in sending men to the moon.

Study At Australia


To go to study in Australia at one of Australia's schools or the various prestigious universities in Australia you need to gather a lot of information.

To study in Australia you must have a student visa (student visa for Australia), which may include the entire family of the applicant (spouse / partner and children). Visas for study are temporary visas.

The duration of the visa to Australia for study varies depending on the length of the chosen course.
With the support of our advice will be easy to quickly find all the necessary information on what you need to do to apply for a student visa to Australia.

You can apply for the student visa (student visa Australia) if you already have 16 years and if you intend to follow English courses in Australia (such as General Ingles, courses for IELTS or Cambridge, Business Ingles, Ingles Academic ...); study at a university in Australia to achieve a bachelor, masters or phd in Australia or attend professional courses in Australia.

To request the student visa Australia you must be in possession of the Confirmation of enrollment (COE), the document certifying the enrollment complete with information on the duration of the studies, which must at least 12 weeks and not exceed 50.

Before starting it is advisable to request activation of health coverage. It is not automatically included with the student visa (student visa Australia).

Friday, 30 January 2015

Study Visa For Japan

study in japan

The procedure to obtain a visa to study Japanese is quite long and is therefore to be started well in advance. First you need to enroll in a college or a school that is located in Japan. This institute then proceeds with the request for a Certificate of Eligibility in favor of the student to the Authority for the Japanese immigration. Serve between 60 and 90 days for the certificate to be issued and mailed to the address provided by the student. At this point the student can go to one of the Japanese consulate in Italy to apply for a visa, which must attach the following documents.

Documents required:

Passport valid for at least six months

A passport photo

Certificate of Eligibility issued by the Authority for the Japanese Immigration

visa application form.

Dipole Moment

dipole moment

In magneto statics the magnetic dipole magnet is obtained considering a coil of dimensions crossed by electric current. This is the first term in the multipole expansion of the magnetic field.

The size that characterizes mainly a magnetic dipole is the magnetic moment, which quantifies the tendency of the dipole to orientate in a given direction in the presence of an external magnetic field

It is a model equivalent to two opposite magnetic charges rigidly connected, in analogy with the electric dipole. Is realized by decreasing the size of a loop traversed by electric current, while maintaining constant the magnetic moment and taking the limit in which the area of the loop is zero.

The magnetic dipole is the simplest case of a 2p-pole, where 2p is the number of pole pairs, which for the magnetic Gauss's law is an integer. It is a useful schematization of the influence of a magnetic field on the coils very small current is passed through, and it is therefore used as part of the phenomenology of magnetism in the matter through classic atomic models (such as those of Rutherford and Bohr), through the 'introduction of atomic currents due to the motion of the electrons and currents caused by the Larmor precession of the orbit of these.

Discoveries Of Marconi


Marconi, born into a wealthy family from father and Irish mother Emilia, had schooling very irregular; a mixture of private tutors-teachers took turns to regular school, which are always popular with little profit, with the result that in twenty years had not generated any diploma.

In August 1895, after a series of positive results, Marconi sends his brother, accompanied by a farmer, in a farmhouse mail, over a hill, over a kilometer from the villa Griffone where Marconi did his experiments; is known to all the legend of the rifle shot (however, it seems that it was never fired) [10] that crowned the success of the first transmission between two points of sight between them.

Marconi offered his invention to the Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, on. Sinco, the answer to which was so doubtful as to require a new meeting of our little family council." then decided to go, accompanied by his mother, England (February 1896). Marconi's mother, who had many friends in London, managed to get her son by chief of the department of Post telegraphic English. 

Marconi was perfectly conscious of having put in place an invention whose reflections were prominent commercial and then June 2, 1896 introduced the Patent Office in London the question of patent Wireless Telegraphy which was released the following year. In the same year he founded the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company Ltd and continued in experiments by improving the equipment and allowing them to make connections between places more and more distant from each other.

In July 1897, the Minister of the Navy invites Italian Marconi in Italy that will perform a series of experiments in front of groups of engineers and scientists and before King Umberto and Queen. It 'a triumph, in just over a year the name of Marconi is popular; is now a famous man, rich and on the crest of success. In La Spezia aboard R.N. San Martino makes transmissions at a distance of 18 km; then back to London where Lloyds ask him to install transmitters in all their stations on vessels is the first big deal of Wireless Telegraph.

Now the Telegraphy without Wires (TSF) has become a reality in all countries of the world. In France Doucette makes a connection between the Eiffel Tower and the Pantheon (just over four kilometers) with equipment built on projects of Russian AS Popov. 

The Methane Gas


Methane (Greek methy wine, and -ano suffix) 2 is the simplest alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH

Each of the hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon is through a covalent bond. Is a non-polar substance in the form of gas at ordinary temperatures and pressures. It is colorless, odorless and insoluble in water.

In nature, it occurs as an end product of anaerobic plant putrefaction. This natural process can be exploited to produce biogas. Many anaerobic microorganisms is generated using the CO2 as a final electron acceptor.

Constitute up to 97% natural gas. In the coal mine gas is called and is very dangerous because it is highly flammable and explosive. However in recent decades has become important commercial exploitation of methane gas from coal as an energy source.

Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas effect that contributes to global warming of planet Earth as it has a global warming potential 23.3 This means that in a time measurement of 100 years every kg of CH4 warms the earth 23 times the same mass of CO2, however there are approximately 220 times more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Earth methane so that methane contributes least to greenhouse manner.

Fleming's Right Hand Rule

right hand rule

Is a method for determining vector directions, and is based on the Cartesian planes.
It is used in two ways: to address vector and linear movements and movements and rotational directions.

In electromagnetism, the right hand rule states that if extends his right hand on the driver as the outstretched fingers follow the direction of the current, the thumb at right angles to the fingers indicate the direction of movement of the pole north of a magnetic needle.

The field created by the electric current through a straight conductor as any magnetic field, is composed of lines which are arranged in the form of concentric circles arranged in planes perpendicular to the conductor.

Thus, when rotating a corkscrew or screw "to the right" (in the sense of the hands of a clock) or screw corkscrew "advances" and vice versa, when rotated a corkscrew or screw "to the left "(as opposed to clockwise) or screw corkscrew" retreat ".

Thursday, 29 January 2015

Structure of the education system in China

Secondary education

The Chinese educational system is highly competitive and there is ample evidence throughout the different stages of the system. However the levels of school failure are very low and the literacy rate exceeds 94 percent, according to World Bank data. A continuation explain the structure around several basic levels:

Primary Education:

Primary education usually begins at six years old and is mandatory. Usually last six years. During the period of compulsory education, teaching guidelines contemplate attention to both purely academic issues as moral and labor.

Secondary education:

Secondary education, divided in turn into junior secondary education and secondary education in the second cycle. The first cycle usually lasts 3 years and is mandatory (the Chinese authorities have established a total of nine years of compulsory education). To enter upper secondary education, we must overcome the relevant exams training. The upper secondary education also lasts, usually three years.

Professional education: 

since 1996, the Vocational Education Act was enacted, have laid the foundation for a well-structured professional education. Within it several levels differ.

Higher Education: 

within higher education, which is taught in universities, colleges and vocational training centers, we must distinguish vocational training, higher education and postgraduate courses (Masters and PhD).
The academic year is structured around two semesters of about 20 weeks each. The first begins in September and the second in February. Class attendance is mandatory.

The Process Of Sublimation

the proses of sublimation

Sublimation is the movement of a body from solid to gaseous state without passing through the liquid state. This transformation takes place with the purchase of heat and is therefore an endothermic process.
The sublimation occurs in those substances in which the vapor pressure equals the value of atmospheric pressure before reaching the melting temperature.

The solids that sublime (all are molecular solids with low binding energy), can also merge provided during the heating of their vapor pressure is maintained consistently higher than the pressure of sublimation: iodine so heated in a closed container melts at 113.7 ° C (temperature at which the saturated vapor pressure of the iodine that is about 90 mmHg).

The process of bublimazione and subsequent condensation of the vapor, similar to the distillation of liquids, is often used for separating a species that sublimates from other species that do not sublimate.
The phenomenon of the sublimation of solids is matched to that of the evaporation of liquids; in both cases, in fact, surface molecules of a condensed phase change to the state of steam.

But while in the evaporation of the liquid may form steam even within the liquid mass (boiling phenomenon), the similar phenomenon does not occur in the sublimation. This is due to the fact that in liquids the molecules are mobile and assogettate to convection and the heat supplied from the outside is rapidly distributed among all the molecules constituting the liquid mass. In solids instead of the surface molecules that absorb heat will transmit only a small portion within the solid, and, if the bonds between the molecules of the solid are weak, they may be found to have sufficient energy to pass directly from the solid state to the state of steam: in sublimation, and then, the steam is generated only at the surface, and not within the solid.

Examples of substances that can sublimate: iodine, naphthalene, camphor, solid carbon dioxide (also known as dry ice).

Single Cell Organisms


Protozoa are organisms that consist of only one cell. They are compared with the multicellular organisms or metazoans. The division into single and multi-Zeller is purely descriptive and gives no information on degree of relationship, lifestyle or internal structure and metabolic processes.

Protozoa therefore not form a closed kinship group. Single-celled animals include all archaea, most Bacteria, fungi and some protists many. They vary in size from less than a 1 micron (z. B.
Nanoarchaeum equitans) and several centimeters (z. B. Acetabularia). Some protozoa can form cell colonies.

The first single-celled organisms were discovered in 1674 by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. [1] According to older views all eukaryotes were divided only into the two kingdoms of plants and animals, which were accordingly unicellular plants and animals. For example, the amoebae were counted as single-celled animals, some of their representatives to the slime molds and flagellate Euglena flagellates as alternately to the unicellular algae and unicellular animals.

What Is Chemical Engineering?

chemical engineering

Chemical Engineering is a discipline historically developed for the chemical industry. This specialization ensures the implementation of the material transformation processes (physical or chemical).

These processing operations are common to other sectors, its field has naturally expanded energy, aerospace, cosmetics, food, water treatment...

This evolving discipline was then renamed "Chemical Engineering - Process Engineering" and it combines subjects like chemistry, fluid mechanics, thermal, automation ... General diagram of a process.

green Chemistry
The chemical industry increasingly limit the impact of its activities on the environment
Its action is to anticipate the European environmental guidelines and government that impose strong constraints (discharge standards more stringent). This necessarily requires the development of new processes or environmentally

The hCG-GP technician works in all sectors and not just heavy chemicals or petrochemicals. Eg automotive, aerospace, environment, bio-technology, renewable energy, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, food.

Study Visa For Mexico City


It importation apply for a visa well in advance of compensate

your course. Many students do not realize how long it takes the process and do not do it enough. Your request may include the following:

Have vaccines or if you come from an area at high risk of tuberculosis, a chest radiograph
Documents showing your finances and certifications
Attend an interview or a biometric test
Awake an English test.
You can apply for a visa up to 3 months before the start of your course, but it's good to start your research and you need to plan ahead.

Child Visitor Visa: You can apply if you are 17 or younger and want to study in the UK for up to six months (or 12 months if you are accompanying an academic visitor).
Student Visitor Visa: You can apply if you are 18 or older and want to study in the UK for up to six months. If you want to study only English courses, you can request an extended student visitor visa to stay for up to 11 months.
The next two visas allow you to do a longer course in the UK.

Tier 4 (Child) student visa: You can apply if you are between 4 and 17 years old. If you are between 4 and 15 years of age, you must attend an independent, tuition in the UK school.
Tier 4 (General) Student Visa: You can apply if you want to come to the UK to continue your studies after 16 years.

Wednesday, 28 January 2015

Bone Care


Many people think first of all of calcium when it comes to doing something for their bones. And all too often, the bone Care exhausted in taking any calcium preparation or in excessive milk consumption. Strong bones, however, need a lot more than calcium. Worse! Who consumes much calcium can sometimes weaken the bones, instead of strengthening it.

Bones need magnesium

The organism builds bones are not limited to calcium. He needs to also a variety of minerals and trace elements such. As zinc, boron and copper. A particularly important for bone mineral is further

Comprises magnesium.

Calcium is effective only with magnesium
Magnesium is absolutely essential for many body functions. One of his most important roles is that of the co-factor for calcium. This means that calcium can only be properly utilized when magnesium is present.

Bones need vitamin K

Vitamin K is also actively involved in bone formation. It was under his influence can be formed in the bone protein osteocalcin that which binds calcium and is responsible for skeletal development.

Bones need sun

Vitamin D is for bone metabolism of paramount importance. With the diet, only a negligible fraction of the vitamin D requirement can be met.

But the human body is set up so that one hand he can make vitamin D with the help of sunlight in the skin itself and that he on the other hand has a memory mechanism that allows him theoretically to store vitamin D through the winter and therefore low light months. So anyone who wants to take care of an adequate and above all natural vitamin D supply that uses this natural sunlight - without sunscreen.

Visa to Study in Ireland

study at ireland

In this article you will find all the information you need about the visa to study in Ireland. This information is based on the experience of our students, staff and documents and government sources in Ireland. Always remember to visit the nearest embassy to your residence to confirm the last data.

The INIS, for its acronym in English Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service, is the body responsible for monitoring compliance with the laws governing the Irish immigration system. Year after year this organization aims to improve the legal conditions of citizens who reside in Irish territory and those seeking to live permanently.

A group of Latin American countries that do not require the processing of visa to study in Ireland. They just need to meet certain requirements, including the completion of a registration once the person go to Ireland.

Students from the EU / EEA do not need a student visa to study in Ireland.



The metal tungsten [vɔlfram] is a chemical Substance with the symbol W and atomic number 74. It is a shiny white metal that is ranked among the transition metals. Tungsten has the highest of all pure metals, melting and boiling point.

In the 16th century Freiberg mineralogist Georgius Agricola described That, the occurrence of a mineral in Saxon tin ore, which greatly complicated the tin production by slugging of the tin content. Whether it acted to wolf ramite, is still controversial, as he spoke of the "lightness" of the mineral. He named the mineral lupi spuma, which translated from Latin means "wolf (s) foam" means. Later, from Wolf foam Wolfrahm. And finally came to the now famous words of tungsten.

The common word in English and French Tungsten derives (Swedish for "heavy stone") Tung Sten (calcium tungstate) from. In this realized in 1781, the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a hitherto unidentified salt. Pure tungsten was the first time in 1783 by the Spanish brothers Fausto and Juan José Elhuyar (who worked under the direction of Scheele) by decrease of tungsten trioxide, which is obtained from wolframite made.

The tungsten ores are first concentrated by flotation. Thereafter, the digestion of the ground ore with soda takes place by melting at about 800 ° C, or with sodium hydroxide solution under pressure (roasting), said first soluble sodium tungstate is formed. After precipitation and filtering off impurities, the sodium tungstate (Na2WO4 • 2 H2O) is converted with calcium chloride to calcium tungstate with hydrochloric acid to tungsten trioxide (WO3 * H2O) reacts, which is filtered off. By adding an ammoniacal solution forms a complex called ammonium para tungstate (APT). This is also collected by filtration and subsequently transferred at 600 ° C in relatively pure tungsten trioxide. By annealing to obtain tungsten (VI) oxide (WO3), which is reduced at 800 ° C under a hydrogen atmosphere to steel gray tungsten:

This process produces gray powder; this is frequently compacted into sintered electrically panels. At temperatures above 3400 ° C, in special electric furnaces with a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen a compact tungsten metal are melted (Zone melting process).

Theory Of Ionization


In fact, the ionization energy is the energy that you have to provide your atom (gaseous) to remove an electron.

The energies are predictable in order of size.

It is necessary to have in mind the electronic filling of OA 1s2,2s2,2p4,3s2 ...
after you have to know that a molecule (core) is very stable when it acquired a noble gas structure
or that its sub layers are saturated (filled)
Or then half filled.

So if you go from one atom X configuration there and you remove one electron that is, you take the config y -1 if this config corresponds to a state of stability, energy supply will be low because the atom + has facilities to arrive in this state while if you leave a stable atom and you're trying to ionize, the energy supply will be high.

Magnetic Field


Magnetic fields are produced by electrical currents, which can be macroscopic currents in wires or tiny currents associated with electrons in atomic orbits. The magnetic field is defined in terms of the force exerted on moving charges in the law of the Lorentz force. Magnetic field interaction with the loads, leads to numerous practical applications. The sources of magnetic fields are essentially dipolar nature, having a north pole and a south magnetic pole.

The standard unit (SI) for the magnetic field is Tesla, that can be drive from the magnetic part of the law of Lorentz force, Fmagnética = qvB, which is composed of (Newton x second) / (Coulomb x meter). The Gauss (1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss) is a unit of smaller magnetic field.

The magnetic quantity B which we call here "magnetic field", is sometimes called "magnetic flux density". The Weber per square meter is the ancient name of Tesla, being the Weber the unit of magnetic flux.

Tuesday, 27 January 2015

Top 10 Universities Of The World


1 Harvard

Harvard is the oldest and most prestigious American universities. This institution founded in 1636 now includes 9 different faculties and welcomes students handpicked from around the world.

2 MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a prestigious American university and a research institute specializing in the fields of science and technology. Since its founding in 1861, the institute dedicated to the advancement of knowledge has counted several Nobel Prize among its members.

3 Yale universities

Yale University, which is one of the most important in the United States and the world, was founded in the early eighteenth century. Several presidents of the United States were students at the university known for its law school. We propose to trace the history of this property in New Haven, Connecticut.

4 Stanford University:

Stanford University, was named from its founder Leland Stanford, consistently position in between of the best universities in the world. This campus of its kind in the heart of the famous Silicon Valley includes notably renowned business school.
5 Berkeley: University of California:

The Berkeley is undoubtedly the best University of California and one of the best in the world. This invites you to discover the history of this institution at the forefront of scientific research.

6 Princeton: the famous University of New Jersey

The small town of Princeton, in the State of New Jersey, home to one of the most prestigious universities in the world. For proof, Princeton University came in 2010 and 2011 7th in the famous "Shanghai ranking".

7 The California Institute of Technology or Caltech:

The California Institute of Technology or Caltech is an American university located in Pasadena, California. This small university, which hosts some 2,700 students, is one of the ten best universities in the world.

8 Dartmouth College: 

Member of the prestigious Ivy League Dartmouth College is one of the oldest American universities and most reputable. This private university located in the city of Hanover, in the state of New Hampshire, was indeed founded in 1769.

9 Columbia University: 

Columbia University located in New York in the United States is one of the most prestigious universities in the world. We invite you to discover this university where the current President Barack Obama did his graduate studies.

10 Cornell University:

US private university located in the small town of Ithaca, Cornell is one of eight prestigious universities of the Ivy League. This institution founded in 1865 consistently ranks among the 20 best universities in the world.

Mechanical Theory Of Heat

Theory of Heat

The theory of heat or mechanical theory of heat is a theory, introduced by Sir Benjamin Thompson in 1798, and further developed in 1824 by French physicist Sadi Carnot, heat and mechanical work are equivalent. Relates to the mechanical equivalent of heat. Over the next century, with the preface of the second law of thermodynamics by Rudolf Clausius in 1850, this theory became the science of thermodynamics. In 1851, in his work "On the dynamical theory of heat," William Thomson outlined the vision, as based on recent experiments of those like James Joule, that "heat is not a substance but a dynamic effect mechanical, we recognize that there must be an correspondence between mechanical work and heat, as between cause and effect. "

In the following years, the phrase "dynamic theory of heat" gradually became the new science of thermodynamics. In 1876, for example, the American civil engineer Richard Sears McCulloh, stated that "the mechanical theory of heat, sometimes called thermodynamics, is the branch of science that deals phenomena of heat, motion effects and position. "

The term "heat theory", is associated with movement or vibratory energy is generally used in contrast to the caloric theory, considering the heat as a fluid or gas weight able to move in and out of the pores in solid and found between atoms. However, both are really compatible view angles under the principle of conservation of energy and the corresponding first law of thermodynamics.

Study At New Zealand

New zealand

To take only one course of less than three months (Eg an English course at a language school), the tourist visa conditions apply, ie passport holders are exempt from visa for a stay of less than three months. This also applies to elementary school students in high school, and those who go through a formal exchange if the duration of study is less than three months.

For one (or more) during more than three months, and official exchanges of more than three months, you must apply for a student visa ("student visa") after you choose your program, received confirmation of the registration for the court of your choice and set tuition. You must attach a copy of such confirmations to your visa application, and a financial guarantee (INZ 1014). The student visa will be issued for the period of study.

Since you will not be covered by the New Zealand social security, you must confirm that your normal social insurance will cover you in NZ. Otherwise, you must take out health insurance / disability / hospitalization / repatriation. Check with your travel agent or your usual insurer.

The Galaxy

The Recession of Galaxies

In 1912, the American astronomer Vesto Slipher at Lowell Observatory began a study of the spectrum of the brightest galaxies. This was not an easy task for even the brightest galaxies have very low total luminosity and the fact of breaking light into its different wavelengths does not help. He thus had several nights of observation for the spectrum of a galaxy alone at the time.

In analyzing the results, Vesto Slipher noticed that the few lines present in these spectra were displaced from their theoretical position. He interpreted this as an effect of the speed of galaxies since the observed wavelength of the spectral lines of a body changes when it is moving. From the offset, Slipher could thus determine the relative speed of these galaxies compared to ours. It thus found for example that the Andromeda galaxy is approaching us at a speed of about 300 kilometers per second.

Its end result was surprising: he got eleven redshifts and four to the blue, far more galaxies away from us galaxies approaching us. If the movement of galaxies was random and without preferred direction, it should have been as many as shifts toward blue to red. Slipher's observations therefore revealed a fundamental fact about the dynamics of the Universe. Unfortunately, the discovery did not take place at this time because the sample of galaxies was not large enough to be truly meaningful.

European Business School London

 ESCP Europe

This School was founded in 1819, ESCP Europe is the ancient business school and has trained several generations of leaders and entrepreneurs.

With five urban campuses (Paris, London, Berlin, Madrid and Turin) and its deep European identity, ESCP Europe has a unique style of intercultural management training and a global perspective of issues related to international management.

The international network of ESCP Europe, consisting of a hundred universities partners, expands the scope of the European School on a global scale. ESCP Europe is a member of the university center Hesam.

With triple accreditation (EQUIS, AMBA, AACSB), ESCP Europe every year 4,000 students and 5,000 leaders framework of 90 different countries, offering a wide range of general and specialized courses in management (Masters, MBA, doctorate-PhD and Training). With its long-standing relationships with national and international companies, the community allows ESCP Europe to provide unique career opportunities internationally.

Combining innovative educational device, full study program to follow multi-campus faculty and exceptional body, ESCP Europe is an essential contributor to the development of European and international management culture

Monday, 26 January 2015

Study Visa For China

Study chaina

If you think about moving to study in China for less than 180 days must apply for a visa X2. If you want to stay longer, for example, for an exchange year in college, you will need a visa x1.
In addition to the basic requirements must submit a letter of invitation from the school, the form JW201 (or JW202) issued by the Chinese Ministry of Education (you should send him your school along with the letter of invitation), the Supplemental Request Form Seen and Record of the physical 

examination for foreigners.

The student visa is only valid for 30 days from the date of the coming into China. 'then convert it to a compulsory temporary residence permit.

To obtain a residence permit, which still has to be renewed every year, you must provide various documents and a certificate of health issued by China Entry-Exit Inspection and Bureau.

Plasma 4th State of Matter


Three states of matter are widely known, the fourth state, plasma, remains mysterious and unknown to most people, however, the plasma as the fourth state of matter is essential to the existence of life.
Applying heat to a solid that it becomes liquid, that is melted, if it is followed by applying heat the liquid changes to gas and finally some electrons from atoms or neutral gas molecules emerge, forming a mixture of ions positively charged and negatively charged electrons.

The spectacular rays are an example of plasma 

When the gas is ionized, their properties have been altered so that bears little similarity to the other states of matter, for this reason it is considered that state of ionized gas as the fourth state of matter called plasma.

The sun is a good example of

Plasma characteristics are unique as it is the only state of matter that interacts with the environment, with the magnetic and electric field, and himself. The plasma state has a basic property of almost electrical neutrality, the number of positive and negative charges in the plasma are practically equal.



Psychology is the discipline that investigates the mental processes of humans and animals. The word comes from the Greek: psychological (mental activity or soul). This discipline analyzes the three dimensions of these processes: cognitive, affective and behavioral.

Modern psychology has been commissioned to gather facts about the behaviors and experiences of living beings, systematically organizing and developing theories for understanding. These studies help explain their behavior and even in some cases, predict their future actions.

For people who develop the study of psychology are called psychologists. This means, those who analyze the behavior of living things from a scientific approach. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Jean Piaget are regarded as some of the pioneering psychologists.

The methodology of the study of psychology is divided into two main branches:

One that understands this discipline as a basic science (also called experimental) and employs a scientific-quantitative methodology (hypothesis contrasts with variables that can be quantified within an environment of experimentation),

Another that seeks to understand the psychological phenomenon through qualitative methodologies that enrich the description and help to understand the processes.


A twisting force that becomes a cause of rotation is called torque. "A key element in these force and torque balances is the hydrodynamic shear force and torque that the cell experiences when stationary on a planar surface."

The twisting effect may be generated by a torque, a torque. In circular sections, the effect of these loads is a torsional shear and torsional deflection (twisting angle).
As critical variables in the power transmission has torque, power and rotational speed.

Torque = Force x distance

T = F x d (54)

Being units of torque, Nm or N-mm in the international system, and lb-inch or lb-ft, in the English system.

Power = torque x rotation speed 

P = T x n (56)

Avogadro's number


Avogadro's number, corresponds to the number of elementary particles, atoms or molecules in a mole of substance.

The value of Avogadro's number can be achieved experimentally with measurements based on many different phenomena, for example on the kinetic theory of gases, the diffusion of light in the atmosphere, on radioactivity, on electrolysis. Its value corresponds to 6.022 • 1023 particles / mol.
one mole of any Essentially this always contains 6.022 1023 particles, whether they are atoms, molecules or ions.

Avogadro's number represents the number of entities contained in the unit mole.
For example:

One mole of K + ions corresponds to 6.022 1023 K + ions;

One mole of Fe atoms corresponds to 6.022 • 1023 atoms Fe

One mole of electrons corresponds to 6.022 electrons 1023

Avogadro's number, No is the proportionality constant which allows to determine, note the chemical amount n, the number N of particles contained in a sample through the following relation:

N= No n
n = N/No

in which:

N = number of particles
No = Avogadro's number = 6.022 • 1023 particles / mol
n = number of moles (mol)

Conversely, knowing the number N of particles contained in a sample, it is possible, through the inverse formula, determine the value of the chemical amount n.

Sunday, 25 January 2015



The wavelength is defined as the distance between two successive points in the same phase of a wave motion, for example, the distance between two crests or between two successive wave breasts, and electromagnetic radiation.

The wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency, ie the number of repetitions per unit time, usually seconds.

Longitud Cuando an airline pilot or captain of a cruise want to communicate via radio its position on the planet, it have two numerical values, which form a coordinate, called latitude and longitude. These are angles, measured in degrees, minutes and seconds of arc. Such classifications, however, can be shortened depending on the context, omitting "arc", provided it is understood that we are not talking time.

The latitude lines intersect the earth from side to side, and measure the angle formed between any part of the planet and its center. Thus, the globe has a series of rings that surround it, where passing through Ecuador has the largest diameter and located at the poles are just points.

Furthermore, a number of lines connecting the poles and having constant length; are called meridians. They cross the Ecuador, which is divided into 360 degrees; thus, to know the length of a given point, just know what latitude angle in question falls meridian.

Study in Saudi Arabia

Study in Saudi Arabia

Capital: Riyadh
Official languages: Arabic
Government: Unitary Islamic absolute monarchy
Population: 29,195,895
Gross Domestic Product: $ 906.806000000000
Currency: Saudi Riyal (SAR)
Time Zone: (GMT + 3)

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab country in Western Asia by land area and second largest in the Arab world. Saudi Arabia has the largest reserves in the world 's oil is heavily concentrated in the Eastern Province. Financial oil accounts for 95% of exports and 70% of government revenues, although the proportion of non-oil economy has been growing recently. This has facilitated the alteration of an underdeveloped desert kingdom one of the richest countries in the world's.

The School System In The U.S

The School System In The U.S

In the US there is a Compulsory education usually until 16 or 18 years, depending on the state. 
The three-tier school system with high school, junior high school and high school, as in Germany does not exist in the United States. Differently gifted children attend a school together instead.

The schooling of a child in America begins with the six-year "Elementary School", which already starts with the kindergarten and going up to the 6th or 8th grade. In grades 7 to 9, it then goes to the "Middle School" or "junior high school". Students of "high school", which is comparable to the total German school visit. This school visit the American youth from grades 9 to 12 and 10 to 12.

The completion of high school entitles you to attend a university. In the US, the university education has a particularly high status. Thus, the United States that nation with the highest percentage of young people who attend a university.

The school system is a state, which means that until the completion of general compulsory education all have the opportunity to go to school for free. This offer is made of 90% of the students to complete. The remaining 10% attend private schools in the country.

The Water


CAS-No. 7732-18-5
formula H2O
Molar mass (1) ... 18.01471
18.01599 g / mol
Melting point of 0.0 ° C
Boiling point 99.97 ° C
3.98 ° C
20 ° C
1.00g / cm3
0.998203 g / cm3
Refractive index [25 ° C] 1.33251
Dielectric constant. [20 ° C] 80.35

Water is the liquid which dissolves in many more substances (universal solvent), this property is due to its ability to form hydrogen bonds with other substances, as these will dissolve when interacting with the polar water molecules.

Solvent capacity is responsible for two important roles for living things: the environment in which run the majority

Reactions of nutrient supply and metabolism and waste disposal are done through aqueous transport systems.

A 20 540 calories for a gram of water evaporation is needed, which is indicative of the energy required to break the hydrogen bonds between the molecules set of liquid water and subsequently to provide these molecules sufficient kinetic energy to leave phase transition to the liquid and vapor.

The Steam Engine

Steam engine

Around 1680 A French physicist Denis Papin invented the Papinschen pot and the associated safety valve for excess pressure. He discovered the first possibility to use the steam to performing work.
English engineer Thomas Savery was the first who built the steam pump for water elating in mines. Savery also provides a measurement of the performance of a machine - the word horsepower (power, which is accomplished when a weight of 75 kg lifted within a second to a meteris).

In 1765, James Watt, Scottish inventor, developed the 1st usable steam engine. Together with the manufacturer Matthias Boultin he founded 1774 engineering works. The most famous invention, the sun and Planetary-wheel gear, transforms the up and down movement of the piston rod in a rotating motion.

In 1972 was begun in Wuppertal Lutz Hielscher with the manufacture of steam engines in the model and technical toys.

In 1994 the production of technical toys in model runs back up to full speed. 

For example:

From the monorail in Wuppertal, steam railways (H0, G, I), steam engines, Stirling engines, vacuum motors, steam cars, and turbines. They are always available as a factory built or kit.

Saturday, 24 January 2015

Equilibrium Conditions


Statics deals with forces groups that are in equilibrium, that is, for the affected system in that it does not move, it is static. A fulfillment of the conditions of equilibrium always says that the body or the system is at a resting position.

A planar body is in equilibrium if the following conditions are met:

Fr = 0 And  Ma = 0

This means that the total resultant of all the forces and the resultant moment with respect to an arbitrary point A must be zero.
One can relate these conditions to Cartesian coordinates.
This gives three equilibrium conditions:

Sum of the forces in the x-direction is zero: FRx = ΣH = 0

Sum of the forces in the y-direction is zero: Fry = ΣV = 0

Sum of the moments about a point is zero: MA = ΣMAi = 0

These conditions apply to all directions of force. The moment equilibrium must be met for each point of the system.

As the equilibrium conditions are applied, shall be demonstrated by an example.

At a statically determinate mounted circular disk of radius r, the bearing forces are to be determined by the equilibrium conditions. The disc is loaded by its own weight G, a moment M0 and a force F.

From the sum Horizonatlkrfte follows: FRx = AH + F = 0 (1)

From the sum Vertikalkrfte follows: Fry = AV - BV - G = 0 (2)

Of the sum of the moments follows: MS = AV • r - F • r - M0 = 0 (3)

From (1) follows: AH = -F
From (3) follows: AV = F + M0 / r (4)
From (2) and (4) the following: BV = AV - G = F + M0 / r - G

The Discovery of Superconductivity


That was year 1911, when the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. He realized that if mercury is cooled to below 4.2 degrees Kelvin, or about minus 269 degrees the resistance of the metal became exactly zero. This means that the current flowing in the cooled metal does not meet any "obstacle" and flows freely without giving rise to decrease of voltage or heating.

We can think of the current as a river of electrons moving in to the conductor; in their motion these particles are partially obstructed by the atoms of the metal itself that, in this way, subtract part of the energy of the electrons dissipating it as heat.

After the discovery of the Dutch physicist, who for this took the Nobel prize in 1913, the phenomenon of superconductivity has been observed in many other metals, each with its own critical temperature, namely at below which the metal becomes superconducting, and with the its critical magnetic field; in fact, not only the temperature affects the superconducting state of the metal but also a particularly intense magnetic field which, being able to penetrate inside the superconductor, alters the state of the superconducting metal and brings it back to the normal conductor.

This theory is known as the BCS, the initials of the three scientists Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer who have formulated in 1957 and for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1972.

The Cell theory


The cell is the smallest unit of life, capable of metabolic and reproduction to create or use energy to perform their tasks functions. This is named after Robert Hooke, in 1665, observing thin slices of cork, called "small cells" for the hexagonal spaces he saw in them (Alexander et al 1992;. Smith, 1995; Galvan and Bojorques, 2002; Velasquez , 2005).

Cell theory

Matthias Jacob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, were the first researchers to generalize and interpret observations on the cell. With the evidence gathered by various researchers, the findings of Shcleiden in plant cells and Schwann their own research published in 1839, in which he proposed the idea that all living organisms are formed from the same type of elementary structure the cell. Made with which was formally established the cell theory.

The cell theory can be summarized in the following statements:

All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and purpose of organisms.

The new stem cells for cell reproduction of cells that already exist 

Properties of Carbon


relative atomic mass : 12.0107 g / mol
Rank : 6
Melting point : 3652 ° C
Boiling point : 4827 ° C
Oxidation numbers : 4, 2, -4
Density : 2.26 g / cm³
Electronegativity (Pauling) : 2.5
Electron configuration : (He) 2s2 2p2

Physical Properties of carbon:

Natural carbon is a mixture of the carbon isotope 12C (98.89%), 13C (1.11%), 14C (only in trace amounts). 14C is often used as a radioactive indicator in biology for the investigation of metabolic processes. Carbon can come out in two modifications. For one, as hexagonal and electrically conductive graphite and secondly as cubic crystalline diamond.

Chemical properties of carbon:

Carbon is a very unreactive element. It reacts at room temperature only with fluorine. At higher temperatures, however, forms of compounds having a plurality of elements. Of particular importance of the carbon is in organic chemistry, as it is able to form single, double and triple bonds with itself. Thus, it can form carbon chains and rings.



Carbohydrates are the most important nutrients in human body and are known as energy supplier. Chemically, they are composed of individual sugar molecules and are therefore often referred to as sugar.

Carbohydrates with little sugar molecules are also called "short-chain carbohydrates". If there are more than ten sugar molecules are multiple sugar, as contained in bread, for example, Multiple sugars are also referred to as "long-chain carbohydrates", as they consist of a chain of more sugar molecules.
The carbohydrates are broken down in the body to the smallest unit of sugar (glucose sugar molecule) required by each cell as an energy supplier.

The advantage of carbohydrates compared to other energy sources  is that they can be quickly dismantled and recycled. The liver stores as a central storage organ about one-third and the muscles around two-thirds of the absorbed energy.

The brain cells need glucose to work at full speed. People who do endurance sports or work hard physically, have an increased need for carbohydrates.

Friday, 23 January 2015

Rotary Motion

Rotary Motion

Rotational movement is the movement of a body, in which the distances of all points with each other and to a fixed axis of rotation remains the same. It is characterized by an angle of rotation, which characterizes the position of the body at any time.

Rotation spatially periodic rotational motion in which the system is performing full revolutions
The rotational movements used to describe sizes angle, angular velocity and angular acceleration corresponding position, velocity and acceleration in translation.

Angular displacement of a body is the circle in radians through which a line or point has been rotated in a particular sense about a individual axis. 

Angular acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. In SI system units, its unit is radians per second squared (rad/s2), and is frequently denoted by the Greek letter alpha (α).

The Human Heart

Human Heart

Task of the heart is to supply the oxygen and nutrient-rich blood body. This reaches the heart through regular contractions ("heartbeats").

Structure of the heart

The heart consists of four chambers, two atria and two so-called ventricles. The atria are connected to the chambers via the valves. The openings for the body and the pulmonary artery are also controlled via a flap.
From the heart chambers and heart valves

Cardiac cycle

In rhythmic, steady heartbeat filling phase and expulsion alternate regularly. This coordinated interplay is necessary to provide the body with enough blood.


The heart works independent (autonomous): specialized muscle cells from the excitements and pass them on. This system is called Erregungsbildungs- and conduction system.

Study at California

university of california

Visa students and courses

The F-1 visa

Who is it for?

Students wishing to conduct general education studies.

How do we do?

Prove that you have sufficient funds to study in the United States and we have every intention of coming home, after completing his studies. You will receive an I-20 (Certificate of admissibilité), this document attesting that you have the right to study in the United States.

For how long?

The total duration of the studies, as long as you are considered a full-time student, more than 60 days after the visa for your departure or prepare your transfer to another school.
The J-1 visa

Who is it for?

The interns in "sponsorship". There are 2 types of visas J-1, J-1 "Trainee" and the J-1 "Intern". The J-1 visa "Intern" is awarded to graduates or students under a year, and J-1 "Trainee" young professionals with a degree in higher education and one year of experience outside the United UNite or 5 years without a diploma of higher education.

How do we do?

Choose a course that matches their field of study or professional skills.
For how long?
12 months for the Intern, 18 months for the Trainee.



Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells and responsible for the red color. It exists in several forms, including hemoglobin A1 representing 98% of the hemoglobin of a normal individual.

In the fetus, there are hemoglobin F hemoglobins and some, such as S responsible for sickle cell anemia, are associated with diseases called hemoglobinopathies. Hemoglobin main function is to transport oxygen molecules to organs and tissues through the bloodstream.

After the breakdown of red blood cells, a portion of the hemoglobin will be transformed by several reactions bilirubin compound that gives the yellow color of urine and stercobilin giving its brown color to the stool. The normal amount of hemoglobin is between 13 and 18 grams per liter of blood in humans.

Melting Point

Melting Point

The melting point is the amount of heat at which a solid changes into the liquid at atmospheric pressure. During change of state of a pure substance, the temperature remains constant since all the heat is used in the fusion process. Thus the melting point of pure substances defined and reproducible, and it can be used to identify a product, if it has been previously reported.

The presence of impurities has considerable influence on the melting point. According to Raoult's law all solute produces a freezing-point depression, or a decrease in the melting temperature. Act solute impurities and decrease the melting point of the main substance solvent. If there is a significant amount of impurity, the mixture may have a wide range of temperatures in which melting point is observed.
Thus it is noted that:

a) The pure solids have a stable melting point and melted in a small temperature range.

b) The presence of impure metal lowers the melting point and causes the sample based on a wide temperature range.

c) The presence of moisture or solvent gives incorrect fusion points.

Thursday, 22 January 2015

Study In Canada For Italian Students


Documents required to enter Canada without a visa:

- Passport valid for at least six months

- Ticket round trip *

- Evidence that enrollment in a university or a school that is located in Canada *

- Documents proving that the student is in possession of the necessary requirements to stay in Canada *

* These documents may be obtained at the border or at the airport at the discretion of the competent authorities

Documents required to take courses of study with a duration of more than six months:

Release time: 1 months

- Passport valid for at least six months

- Two passport photos

- Application form of study permit

- Family information form (click here to download)

- Letter of acceptance of the university or institution where you intend to study

- Documents proving that the student is in possession of the economic requirements needed to stay in Canada. These documents may be requested (the consulate will tell you what documents are needed for your specific case):

· Bank statement for the last 3 months (the applicant or a family member)
· Savings
· Copies of contracts relating to real property
· Documents proving that the student has a scholarship
· Canadian bank account made payable to the student

- Certified criminal of all countries where the student has resided for more than 6 months after the age of eighteen years of age

- Proof of legal custody (only for students under age)

- Certificate of acceptance of Quebec (only for those who wish to study in Quebec, click here to visit the website of the Ministry of Immigration)